Verily, We have sent it
down as an Arabic Qur'an in order that you may understand.
The Arabic language is
the most eloquent, plain, deep and expressive of the meanings that might
arise in one's mind. Therefore, the most honorable Book, was revealed in
the most honorable language, to the most honorable Prophet and Messenger,
delivered by the most honorable angel, in the most honorable land on
earth, and its revelation started during the most honorable month of the
year, Ramadan. Therefore, the Qur'an
is perfect in every respect.
By the One in Whose Hand
is my soul! I have come to you with it white and pure. Do not ask them
about anything, for they might tell you something true and you reject it,
or they might tell you something false and you believe it.
By the One in Whose Hand
is my soul! If Musa were living, he would have no choice but to follow me.
Imam Ahmad also recorded
a narration from Abdullah bin Thabit who said,
"Umar came to Allah's
Messenger and said; `O Messenger of Allah! I passed by a brother of mine
Qurayzah, so he wrote some comprehensive statements from the
for me, should I read them to you?'
The face of Allah's Messenger changed
So I said to him, `Don't you see the face of Allah's Messenger?''
said, `We are pleased with Allah as our Lord, Islam as our religion, and
Muhammad as our Messenger.'
So the anger of the
Prophet subsided, and he said,
By the One in Whose Hand
is Muhammad's soul, if Musa appeared among you and you were to follow him,
abandoning me, then you would have strayed. Indeed you are my share of the
nations, and I am your share of the Prophets.''
He (the father) said: "O my son! Relate not your vision to
your brothers, lest they should arrange a plot against you. Verily,
Shaytan is to man an open enemy!''
Allah narrates the reply
Yaqub gave his son Yusuf when he narrated to him the vision that he saw,
which indicated that his brothers would be under his authority. They would
be subjugated to Yusuf's authority to such an extent that they would
prostrate before him in respect, honor and appreciation. Yaqub feared
that if Yusuf narrated his vision to any of his brothers, they would envy
him and conspire evil plots against him. This is why Yaqub said to Yusuf,
لاَ تَقْصُصْ رُؤْيَاكَ عَلَى
إِخْوَتِكَ فَيَكِيدُواْ لَكَ كَيْدًا
(Relate not your vision to your brothers, lest they should arrange a plot
"They might arrange a
plot against you that causes your demise.''
Sunnah, there is a confirmed
Hadith that states,
If any of you saw a
vision that he likes, let him narrate it. If he saw a dream that he
dislikes, let him turn on his other side, blow to his left thrice, seek
refuge with Allah from its evil and not tell it to anyone. Verily, it will
not harm him in this case.
Hadith that Imam Ahmad and
collectors of the Sunan collected, Mu`awiyah bin Haydah Al-Qushayri said
that the Messenger of Allah said,
12:6 "Thus will your Lord
choose you and teach you the interpretation of dreams (and other things)
and perfect His favor on you and on the offspring of Yaqub, as He
perfected it on your fathers, Ibrahim and Ishaq aforetime!
Verily, in Yusuf and his brethren there were
Ayat for those who ask.
Allah says that there are
Ayat, lessons and wisdom to learn from the story of Yusuf and his
brothers, for those who ask about their story and seek its knowledge.
Surely, their story is unique and is worthy of being narrated.
Kill Yusuf or cast him
out to some (other) land, so that the favor of your father may be given to
They said, `Remove Yusuf,
who competes with you for your father's love, from in front of your
father's face so that his favor is yours alone. Either kill Yusuf or
banish him to a distant land so that you are rid of his trouble and you
alone enjoy the love of your father.'
One from among them said: "Kill not Yusuf, but if you must
do something, throw him down to the bottom of a well;
قَالَ قَآئِلٌ مَّنْهُمْ
One from among them
Qatadah and Muhammad bin Ishaq said that;
he was the oldest among
them and his name was Rubil (Reuben).
As-Suddi said that;
his name was Yahudha (Judah).
Mujahid said that;
it was Sham`un (Simeon) who said,
لاَ تَقْتُلُواْ يُوسُفَ (Kill not Yusuf),
do not let your enmity
and hatred towards him reach this level, of murder.
However, their plot to kill Yusuf would not have succeeded, because Allah
the Exalted willed that Yusuf fulfill a mission that must be fulfilled and
complete; he would receive Allah's revelation and become His Prophet.
Allah willed Yusuf to be a powerful man in Egypt and govern it.
Consequently, Allah did not allow them to persist in their intent against
Yusuf, through Rubil's words and his advice to them that if they must do
something, they should throw him down to the bottom of a well,
... يَلْتَقِطْهُ بَعْضُ السَّيَّارَةِ ...
he will be picked up by
of travelers passing by.
This way, he said, you will rid yourselves of this bother without having
to kill him,
... إِن كُنتُمْ
if you must do
meaning, if you still insist on getting rid of him.
bin Ishaq bin Yasar said,
"They agreed to a
particularly vicious crime that involved cutting the relation of the womb,
undutiful treatment of parents, and harshness towards the young, helpless
It was also harsh towards
the old and weak who have the rights of being respected, honored and
appreciated, as well as, being honored with Allah and having parental
rights on their offspring. They sought to separate the beloved father, who
had reached old age and his bones became weak, yet had a high status with
Allah, from his beloved young son, in spite of his weakness, tender age
and his need of his father's compassion and kindness.
May Allah forgive them, and indeed, He is the Most Merciful among those
who have mercy, for they intended to carry out a "grave error.''
Ibn Abi Hatim collected
this statement, from the route of Salamah bin Al-Fadl
from Muhammad bin Ishaq.
When Yusuf's brothers
agreed to take him and throw him down the well, taking the advice of their
elder brother Rubil, they went to their father Yaqub, peace be upon him.
They said to him, "Why is it that you,
He (Yaqub) said:
"Truly, it saddens me
that you should take him away.
He said that it was hard on him that he be
separated from Yusuf for the duration of their trip, until they came back.
This demonstrates the deep love that
Yaqub had for his son, because he
saw in Yusuf great goodness and exalted qualities with regards to conduct
and physical attractiveness associated with the rank of Prophethood. May
Allah's peace and blessings be on him.
12:15 So, when they took him away, they all
agreed to throw him down to the bottom of the well, and We revealed to
him: "Indeed, you shall (one day) inform them of this their affair, when
they know (you) not.''
they all agreed to throw
him down to the bottom of the well,
This part of the
Ayah magnifies their
crime, in that it mentions that they all agreed to throw him to the bottom
of the well. This was their intent, yet when they took him from his
father, they pretended otherwise, so that his father sends him with a good
heart and feeling at ease and comfortable with his decision.
reported that Yaqub, peace be upon him, embraced Yusuf, kissed him and
supplicated to Allah for him when he sent him with his brothers.
As-Suddi said that;
the time spent between
pretending to be well-wishers and harming Yusuf was no longer than their
straying far from their father's eyes.
They then started abusing
Yusuf verbally, by cursing, and harming him by beating. When they reached
the well that they agreed to throw him in, they tied him with rope and
lowered him down. When Yusuf would beg one of them, he would smack and
curse him. When he tried to hold to the sides of the well, they struck his
hand and then cut the rope when he was only half the distance from the
bottom of the well. He fell into the water and was submerged. However, he
was able to ascend a stone that was in the well and stood on it.
and We revealed to him:
"Indeed, you shall (one day) inform them of this their affair, when they
know (you) not.''
Ayah, Allah mentions His mercy and compassion
and His compensation and relief that He sends in times of distress. Allah
revealed to Yusuf, during that distressful time, in order to comfort his
heart and strengthen his resolve, `Do not be saddened by what you have
suffered. Surely, you will have a way out of this distress and a good end,
for Allah will aid you against them, elevate your rank and raise your
grade. Later on, you will remind them of what they did to you.'
... وَهُمْ لاَ يَشْعُرُونَ
when they know not.
Ibn Abbas commented on this
"You will remind them of
this evil action against you, while they are unaware of your identity and
unable to recognize you.''
And they came to their father in the early part of the
night weeping. They said: "O our father!
Allah narrates to us the
deceit that Yusuf's brothers resorted to, after they threw him to the
bottom of the well. They went back to their father, during the darkness of
the night, crying and showing sorrow and grief for losing Yusuf. They
started giving excuses to their father for what happened to Yusuf, falsely
إِنَّا ذَهَبْنَا نَسْتَبِقُ
We went racing with one
or had a shooting
وَتَرَكْنَا يُوسُفَ عِندَ مَتَاعِنَا
and left Yusuf by our
guarding our clothes and
and a wolf devoured him,
which is exactly what
their father told them he feared for Yusuf and warned against.
but you will never
believe us even when we speak the truth.
They tried to lessen the
impact of the grave news they were delivering.
They said, `We know that
you will not believe this news, even if you consider us truthful. So what
about when you suspect that we are not truthful, especially since you
feared that the wolf might devour Yusuf and that is what happened.'
Therefore, they said,
`You have reason not to believe us because of the strange coincidence and
the amazing occurrence that happened to us.'
And they brought his
shirt stained with false blood.
on it, to help prove plot that they all
According to Mujahid, As-Suddi and
several other scholars,
they slaughtered a sheep, and stained Yusuf's shirt with its blood.
claimed that this was the shirt Yusuf was wearing when the wolf devoured
him, being stained with his blood. But, they forgot to tear the shirt, and
this is why Allah's Prophet Yaqub did not believe them. Rather, he told
them what he felt about what they said to him, thus refusing their false
And there came a caravan of travelers and they sent their
water-drawer, and he let down his bucket (into the well). He said: "What
good news! Here is a boy.''
Allah narrates what
happened to Yusuf, peace be upon him, after his brothers threw him down
the well and left him in it, alone, where he remained for three days,
according to Abu Bakr bin Ayyash.
Muhammad bin Ishaq said,
brothers threw him down the well, they remained around the well for the
rest of the day to see what he might do and what would happen to him.
Allah sent a caravan of travelers that camped near that well, and they
sent to it the man responsible for drawing water for them. When he
approached the well, he lowered his bucket down into it, Yusuf held on to
it and the man rescued him and felt happy, بُشْرَى هَـذَا غُلاَمٌ
(What good news!
Here is a boy).''
So they hid him as
Al-Awfi reported that Ibn
"is in reference to Yusuf's brothers, who hid the news that
he was their brother.
Yusuf hid this news for fear that his brothers might
kill him and preferred to be sold instead.
Consequently, Yusuf's brothers
told the water drawer about him and that man said to his companions,
بُشْرَى هَـذَا غُلاَمٌ
("What good news! Here is
a boy"), a slave whom we can sell. Therefore, Yusuf's own brothers sold
وَاللّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِمَا يَعْمَلُونَ﴿١٩﴾
And Allah was the
All-Knower of what they did.
states that Allah knew what Yusuf's
brothers, and those who bought him, did. He was able to stop them and
prevent them from committing their actions, but out of His perfect wisdom
He decreed otherwise. He let them do what they did, so that His decision
prevails and His appointed destiny rules,
Surely, His is the
creation and commandment. Blessed is Allah, the Lord of the all that
This reminds Allah's Messenger Muhammad, that Allah has perfect
knowledge in the persecution that his people committed
against him and that He is able to stop them. However, He decided to give
them respite, then give Muhammad the victory and make him prevail over
them, just as He gave Yusuf victory and made him prevail over his
And he (the man) from Egypt who bought him, said to his
Allah mentions the favors
that He granted Yusuf, peace be on him, by which He made the man from
Egypt who bought him, take care of him and provide him with a comfortable
life. He also ordered his wife to be kind to Yusuf and had good hopes for
his future, because of his firm righteous behavior.
And she, in whose house he was, sought to seduce him
(to do an evil act), and she closed the doors,
Allah states that the
wife of the Aziz of Egypt, in whose house Yusuf resided and whose husband
recommended that she takes care of him and be generous to him, tried to
seduce Yusuf! She called him to do an evil act with her, because she loved
him very much. Yusuf was very handsome, filled with manhood and beauty.
She beautified herself for him, closed the doors and called him,
He said: "I seek refuge
in Allah! Truly, he is my Rabb! He made my living in a great comfort!''
as they used to call the chief and master a
`Rabb', Yusuf said to her,
`your husband is my master who provided me with comfortable living and was
kind to me, so I will never betray him by committing immoral sins with his
إِنَّهُ لاَ يُفْلِحُ الظَّالِمُونَ﴿٢٣﴾
Verily, the wrongdoers
will never be successful.
This was said by Mujahid,
As-Suddi, Muhammad bin Ishaq and several others.
The scholars differ in
their recitation of,
هَيْتَ لَكَ (Hayta Laka), whereby Ibn
Abbas, Mujahid and several other scholars said that it means that;
she was calling him to
Al-Bukhari said; "Ikrimah
هَيْتَ لَكَ (Hayta Laka') means,
`come on, O you', in the Aramaic language.''
Al-Bukhari collected this
statement from Ikrimah without a chain of narration.
Other scholars read
it with the meaning,
`I am ready for you'.
Ibn Abbas, Abu Abdur-Rahman
As-Sulami, Abu Wa'il, Ikrimah and Qatadah were reported to have read this
part of the Ayah this way and explained it in the manner we mentioned, as
`I am ready for you'.
`If my slave intends to
perform a good deed, then record it for him as one good deed; if he
performs it, then record it for him multiplied ten folds.
If he intends to commit
an evil act but did not commit it, then record it for him as one good
deed, if he left it for My sake. But if he commits it, then write it as
one evil deed.'
Hadith was also collected in the Two
Sahihs using various wording, this is one of them.
It was also
reported that the Ayah means that;
Yusuf was about to beat her.
As for the
evidence that Yusuf saw at that moment, there are conflicting opinions to
what it was.
Ibn Jarir At-Tabari said,
"The correct opinion is that we
should say that he saw an Ayah from among Allah's
Ayat that repelled the
thought that crossed his mind. This evidence might have been the image of
Yaqub, or the image of an angel, or a divine statement that forbade him
from doing that evil sin, etc.There are no clear proofs to support any of
these statements in specific, so it should be left vague, as Allah left
So they raced with one
another to the door, and she tore his shirt from the back. They both found
her master (i.e. her husband) at the door.
Allah says that Yusuf and
the wife of the Aziz raced to the door, Yusuf running away from her and
her running after him to bring him back to the room. She caught up with
him and held on to his shirt from the back, tearing it so terribly that it
fell off Yusuf's back. Yusuf continued running from her, with her in
pursuit. However, they found her master, her husband, at the front door.
This is when she responded by deceit and evil plots, trying to exonerate
herself and implicate him,
The Aziz was an easy man, or gave excuse
to his wife because she saw in Yusuf an appeal she could not resist. He
said to her, `Ask forgiveness for your sin, the evil desire that you
wanted to satisfy with this young man, and then inventing false
accusations about him,'
(So when she heard of
their accusation,) especially their statement, "indeed she loves him
violently.'' Muhammad bin Ishaq commented, "They heard of Yusuf's beauty
and wanted to see him, so they said these words in order to get a look at
him. '' This is when,
she sent for them,
invited them to her
وَأَعْتَدَتْ لَهُنَّ مُتَّكَأً
and prepared a banquet
Ibn Abbas, Sa'id bin Jubayr, Mujahid, Al-Hasan, As-Suddi and
several others commented that;
she prepared a sitting room which had
couches, pillows (to
and food that requires
knives to cut, such as citron.
as a part of her plan of
revenge for their plot to see Yusuf,
وَقَالَتِ اخْرُجْ عَلَيْهِنَّ
and she said
"Come out before them.''
for she had asked him to stay somewhere else in
he went out and,
they saw him, they
they thought highly of him and were astonished at what they
and (in their
astonishment) cut their hands.
They started cutting their hands in amazement at his beauty, while
thinking that they were cutting the citron with their knives.
they injured their hands with the knives they were holding, according to
several reports of Tafsir.
Others said that;
after they ate and felt
comfortable, and after having placed citron in front of them, giving each
one of them a knife, the wife of the Aziz asked them, "Would you like to
They said, "Yes.''
So she sent for him to
come in front of them and when they saw him, they started cutting their
She ordered him to keep
coming and going, so that they saw him from all sides, and he went back in
while they were still cutting their hands. When they felt the pain, they
started screaming and she said to them, "You did all this from one look at
him, so how can I be blamed?
Unless You turn away
their plot from me, I will feel inclined towards them,
Yusuf invoked Allah: If
You abandon me and I am reliant on myself, then I have no power over
myself, nor can I bring harm or benefit to myself, except with Your power
and will. Verily, You are sought for each and everything, and our total
reliance is on You Alone for each and everything. Please, do not abandon
me and leave me to rely on myself, for then,
"I will feel inclined
towards them and be one of the ignorant.''
So his Lord answered his
Yusuf, peace be upon him,
was immune from error by Allah's will, and He saved him from accepting the
advances of the wife of the Aziz. He preferred prison, rather than accept
her illicit call. This indicates the best and most perfect grade in this
case, for Yusuf was youthful, beautiful and full of manhood. His master's
wife was calling him to herself, and she was the wife of the Aziz of
Egypt. She was also very beautiful and wealthy, as well as having a great
social rank. He refused all this and preferred prison, for he feared Allah
and hoped to earn His reward.
Then it occurred to them, after they had seen the proofs
(of his innocence), to imprison him for a time.
Allah says, `Then it
occurred to them that it would be in their interest to imprison Yusuf for
a time, even after they were convinced of his innocence and saw the proofs
of his truth, honesty and chastity.'
It appears, and Allah
knows best, that they imprisoned him after the news of what happened
spread. They wanted to pretend that Yusuf was the one who tried to seduce
wife and that they punished him with imprisonment. This is why when the
Pharaoh asked Yusuf to leave jail a long time afterwards, he refused to
leave until his innocence was ascertained and the allegation of his
betrayal was refuted. When this was successfully achieved, Yusuf left the
prison with his honor intact, peace be upon him.
Yusuf calls His Jail Mates to Tawhid
even before He interprets Their Dreams
Yusuf, peace be upon him, told the two men that he has
knowledge in the interpretation of whatever they saw in their dream, and
that he will tell them about the interpretation of the dreams before they
become a reality.
This is of that which my Lord has taught me. Verily, I have
abandoned the religion of a people that believe not in Allah and are
disbelievers in the Hereafter.''
Yusuf said that, this knowledge is from Allah Who taught it
to me, because I shunned the religion of those who disbelieve in Him and
the Last Day, who neither hope for Allah's reward nor fear His punishment
on the Day of Return,
have followed the religion of my fathers, - Ibrahim, Ishaq and Yaqub,
Yusuf said, `I have avoided the way of disbelief and
polytheism, and followed the way of these honorable Messengers,' may
Allah's peace and blessings be on them.
This, indeed, is the way of he who seeks the path of
guidance and follows the way of the Messengers, all the while shunning the
path of deviation. It is he whose heart Allah will guide, teaching him
what he did not know beforehand. It is he whom Allah will make an
Imam who is imitated in the way of
righteousness, and a caller to the path of goodness.
Yusuf went on calling his two prison companions to worship Allah alone,
without partners, and to reject whatever is being worshipped instead of
Him like the idols, which were worshipped by the people of the two men,
"You do not worship besides Him but only names which you
have named (forged) - you and your fathers -
Prophet Yusuf explained to them next that it is because of
their ignorance that they worship false deities and give them names, for
these names were forged and are being transferred from one generation to
the next generation. They have no proof or authority that supports this
practice, hence his statement to them,
The command is for none but Allah. He has commanded that
you worship none but Him;
He then affirmed that the judgement, decision, will and
kingdom are all for Allah alone, and He has commanded all of His servants
to worship none but Him.
... ذَلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ ...
that is the straight religion,
`this, Tawhid of Allah
and directing all acts of worship at Him alone in sincerity, that I am
calling you to is the right, straight religion that Allah has ordained and
for which He has revealed what He wills of proofs and evidences,'
12:41 "O two companions of the prison! As for one of you, he
will pour out wine for his master to drink; and as for the other, he will
be crucified and birds will eat from his head. Thus is the case judged
concerning which you both did inquire.''
for the other, he will be crucified and birds will eat from his head.
which is the interpretation of the other man's dream in which he saw
himself carrying bread above his head.
Yusuf told them that the decision
about their matter has already been taken and it shall come to pass. This
is because the dream is tied to a bird's leg, as long as it is not
truthfully interpreted. If it is interpreted, then it becomes a reality.
Ath-Thawri said that Imarah bin Al-Qa`qa` narrated that Ibrahim said that
Abdullah bin Mas`ud said,
"When they said what they said to him, and he explained
their dreams to them, they replied, `We did not see anything at all.' This
is when he said,
And he said to the one whom he knew to be saved: "Mention me to your
king.'' But Shaytan made him forget to mention it to his master. So (Yusuf) stayed in prison
a few (more) years.
that the distiller would be saved. So discretely, so that the other man's
suspicion that he would be crucified would not intensify, he said, اذْكُرْنِي عِندَ رَبِّكَ (Mention
me to your King), asking him to mention his story to the king.
That man forgot Yusuf's request and did not mention his
story to the king, a plot from the devil, so that Allah's Prophet would
not leave the prison. This is the correct meaning of, فَأَنسَاهُ الشَّيْطَانُ ذِكْرَ رَبِّهِ (But
Shaytan made him forget to mention it to his master),
that it refers to
the man who was saved.
As was said by Mujahid, Muhammad bin Ishaq and
As for, `a few years', or, Bida`
it means between three and nine, according to Mujahid and
"Ayub suffered from the illness for seven years, Yusuf
remained in prison for seven years and Bukhtanassar (Nebuchadnezzar -
Chaldean king of Babylon) was tormented for seven years.''
said): "O Yusuf, the man of truth! Explain to us seven fat cows whom seven
lean ones were devouring, and seven green ears of corn, and (seven) others
dry, that I may return to the people, and that they may know.''
And the king (of Egypt) said: "Verily, I saw (in a dream)
seven fat cows, whom seven lean ones were devouring, and seven green ears
of corn, and (seven) others dry. O notables! Explain to me my dream, if it
be that you can interpret dreams.''
of Egypt had a dream that Allah the Exalted made a reason for Yusuf's
release from prison, with his honor and reputation preserved. When the
king had this dream, he was astonished and fearful and sought its
interpretation. He gathered the priests, the chiefs of his state and the
princes and told them what he had seen in a dream, asking them to
interpret it for him. They did not know its interpretation and as an
excuse, they said,
Then the man who was released, now at length remembered and
The man who was saved from the two, who were Yusuf's
companions in prison, remembered. Shaytan
plotted to make him forget the request of Yusuf, to mention his story to
the king. Now, years later, he remembered after forgetfulness and said to
the king and his entourage,
...seven fat cows whom seven lean ones were devouring, and
seven green ears of corn, and (seven) others dry, that I may return to the
people, and that they may know.''
Yusuf's Interpretation of the King's
This is when Yusuf, peace be upon him, told the
interpretation of the dream, without criticizing the man for forgetting
his request that he had made to him. Neither did he make a precondition
that he be released before explaining the meaning. Rather,
and that (the harvest) which you reap you shall leave it in
the ears, (all) except a little of it which you may eat.
Then will come after that, seven hard (years),
He said, `Whatever you harvest during those seven fertile
years, leave it in the ears so as to preserve it better. This will help
the harvest stay healthy longer, except the amount that you need to eat,
which should not be substantial. Stay away from extravagance, so that you
use what remains of the harvest during the seven years of drought that
will follow the seven fertile years.'
This was represented by the seven lean cows that eat the
seven fat cows. During the seven years of drought, they will eat from the
harvest they collected during the seven fertile years, as represented by
the dry ears of corn in the dream. Yusuf told them that during these
years, the remaining ears will not produce anything and whatever they try
to plant, will not produce any harvest, so he said,
"Then thereafter will come a year in which people will have
abundant rain and in which they will press (wine and oil).''
He delivered the good news to them that after the
consecutive years of drought, there will come a fertile year, during which
people will receive rain and the land will produce in abundance. The
people will then press wine and oil as usual.
The King investigates what happened
between the Wife of the Aziz, the Women in the City, and Yusuf
Allah narrates to us that when the king was conveyed the
interpretation of his dream, he liked Yusuf's interpretation and felt sure
that it was true. He realized the virtue of Prophet Yusuf, recognized his
knowledge in the interpretation of dreams and valued his good conduct with
his subjects in his country.
But when the messenger came to
said: "Return to your king,
When the king's emissary came to Yusuf and conveyed the
news of his imminent release, Yusuf refused to leave the prison until the
king and his subjects declare his innocence and the integrity of his
honor, denouncing the false accusation that the wife of the Aziz made
against him. He wanted them to know that sending him to prison was an act
of injustice and aggression, not that he committed an offense that
warranted it. He said, ارْجِعْ إِلَى رَبِّكَ (Return to
your lord (i.e. king...),
The Sunnah of our Prophet praised Prophet Yusuf and
asserted his virtues, honor, elevated rank and patience, may Allah's peace
and blessings be on him.
The Musnad and the Two Sahihs
recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,
He said, "What was your affair when you did seek to seduce
The king gathered those women who cut their hands, while
being hosted at the house of the wife of the Aziz. He asked them all, even
though he was directing his speech at the wife of his minister, the Aziz
He asked the women who cut their hands, مَا خَطْبُكُنَّ (What was
your affair...), what was your story with regards to, إِذْ رَاوَدتُّنَّ يُوسُفَ
عَن نَّفْسِهِ (when you
did seek to seduce Yusuf) on the day of the banquet?
in order that he may know that I betrayed him not in (his)
She said, `I admit this against myself so that my husband
knows that I did not betray him in his absence and that adultery did not
occur. I tried to seduce this young man and he refused, and I am admitting
this so that he knows I am innocent,'
Verily, the (human) self is inclined to evil, except when
my Lord bestows His mercy (upon whom He wills).
whom Allah the Exalted wills to grant them immunity,
... إِنَّ رَبِّي غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ﴿٥٣﴾
my Lord is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
This is the most viable and
suitable understanding for the continuity of the story and the meanings of
Al-Mawardi mentioned this in his Tafsir, in support of it,
it was also preferred by Imam Abu Al-Abbas Ibn Taymiyyah who wrote about
it in detail in a separate work.
It was said Yusuf peace be upon him is the one who said,
ذَلِكَ لِيَعْلَمَ أَنِّي لَمْ أَخُنْهُ
in order that he (the Aziz) may know that I betrayed him
not, (with his wife),
in (his) absence. until the end of
He said, `I sent back the emissary, so that the king would
investigate my innocence and the Aziz be certain that, أَنِّي لَمْ أَخُنْهُ
betrayed him not), with his wife,
بِالْغَيْبِوَأَنَّ اللّهَ لاَ يَهْدِي كَيْدَ الْخَائِنِينَ (in (his)
absence. And, verily, Allah guides not the plot of the betrayers).'
is the only explanation presented by Ibn Jarir At-Tabari and Ibn Abi
Hatim, but the first view is stronger and more obvious because it is a
continuation of what the wife of the Aziz said in the presence of the
Yusuf was not present at all during this time, for he was
released later on and brought to the king by his order.
(Yusuf) said: "Set
me over the storehouses of the land; I will indeed guard them with full
Yusuf praised himself, for this is allowed when one's
abilities are unknown and there is a need to do so. He said that he is,
an honest guard,
knowledge and wisdom about the job he is to be entrusted with.
Prophet Yusuf asked the king to appoint him as minister of
finance for the land, responsible for the harvest storehouses, in which
they would collect produce for the years of drought which he told them
will come. He wanted to be the guard, so that he could dispense the
harvest in the wisest, best and most beneficial way.
The king accepted Yusuf's offer, for he was eager to draw
Yusuf close to him and to honor him.
We bestow of Our mercy on whom We will, and We make not to
be lost the reward of the good doers.
Allah says here, We did not let the patience of Yusuf, from
the harm his brothers exerted on him and being imprisoned because of the
wife of the Aziz, to be lost. Instead, Allah the Exalted and Most Honored
rewarded him with His aid and victory,
And Yusuf's brethren came and they entered unto him, and he
recognized them, but they recognized him not.
Muhammad bin Ishaq and several others said that the reason why Yusuf's
brothers went to Egypt, is that after Yusuf became minister of Egypt and
the seven years of abundance passed, then came the seven years of drought
that struck all areas of Egypt. The drought also reached the area of
Kana`an (Canaan), where Prophet Yaqub, peace be upon him, and his
Prophet Yusuf efficiently guarded the people's harvest
and collected it, and what he collected became a great fortune for the
people. This also permitted Yusuf to give gifts to the people who sought
his aid from various areas who came to buy food and provisions for their
families. Yusuf would not give a family man more than whatever a camel
could carry, as annual provisions for them.
Yusuf himself did not fill his
stomach from this food, nor did the king and his aids eat except one meal
a day. By doing so, the people could sustain themselves with what they had
for the remainder of the seven years. Indeed, Yusuf was a mercy from Allah
sent to the people of Egypt.
Yusuf's brothers were among those who came to
Egypt to buy food supplies, by the order of their father. They knew that
the Aziz of Egypt was selling food to people who need it for a low price,
so they took some merchandise from their land with them to exchange it for
food. They were ten, because Yaqub peace be upon him kept his son and
Yusuf's brother Binyamin with him. Binyamin was the dearest of his sons to
him after Yusuf.
When Prophet Yusuf's brothers entered on him in his court
and the center of his authority, he knew them the minute he saw them.
However, they did not recognize him because they got rid of him when he
was still young, and sold him to a caravan of travelers while unaware of
their destination. They could not have imagined that Yusuf would end up
being a minister, and this is why they did not recognize him, while he did
As-Suddi said that;
Yusuf started talking to his brothers
and asked them, "What brought you to my land?''
They said, "O, Aziz, we
came to buy provisions.''
He asked them, "You might be spies.''
He asked them, "Where are you from?''
They said, "From
the area of Kana`an, and our father is Allah's Prophet Yaqub.''
them, "Does he have other children besides you?''
They said, "Yes, we were
twelve brothers. Our youngest died in the desert, and he used to be the
dearest to his father. His full brother is alive and his father kept him,
so that his closeness compensates him for losing our youngest brother
Yusuf ordered that his brothers be honored and allowed to
when they returned to their father, they said: "O our father! No more
measure of grain shall we get (unless we take our brother). So send our
brother with us, and we shall get our measure and truly, we will guard
But Allah is the Best to guard, and He is the Most Merciful
of those who show mercy.
Yaqub said, `Allah has the most mercy with me among all those who
show mercy, He is compassionate with me for my old age, feebleness and
eagerness for my son. I invoke Allah to return him to me, and to allow him
and I to be together; for surely, He is the Most Merciful of those who
They said: "O our father! What (more) can
we desire! This, our money has been returned to us; so we shall get (more)
food for our family, and we shall guard our brother and add one more
measure of a camel's load. This quantity is easy (for the king to give).''
And when they opened their bags, they found their money had
been returned to them.
says, when Yusuf's brothers opened their bags, they found their
merchandise inside them, for Yusuf had ordered his servants to return it
to their bags. When they found their merchandise in their bags,
قَالُواْ يَا أَبَانَا مَا نَبْغِي
They said: "O our father! What (more) can we desire...'',
what more can we ask for,
بِضَاعَتُنَا رُدَّتْ إِلَيْنَا
This, our money has been returned to us;
Qatadah commented (that they said),
"What more can we ask for, our merchandise was returned to
us and the Aziz has given us the sufficient load we wanted.''
They said next,
so we shall get (more) food for our family,
`if you send our brother with us the next time we go to buy
food for our family,'
And he said: "O my sons! Do not enter by one gate, but
enter by different gates,
that Yaqub, peace be upon him, ordered his children, when he sent
Binyamin with them to Egypt, to enter from different gates rather than all
of them entering from one gate.
Ibn Abbas, Muhammad bin Ka`b, Mujahid,
Ad-Dahhak Qatadah, As-Suddi and several others said that;
he feared the evil eye for them, because they were handsome
and looked beautiful and graceful. He feared that people might direct the
evil eye at them, because the evil eye truly harms, by Allah's decree, and
brings down the mighty warrior-rider from his horse.
And when they went in before Yusuf, he took his brother
(Binyamin) to himself and said: "Verily, I am your brother, so grieve not
for what they used to do.''
states that when Yusuf's brothers went in before him along with his full
brother Binyamin, he invited them to a place of honor as privileged
guests. He granted them gifts and generous hospitality and kindness. He
met his brother in confidence and told him the story of what happened to
him and that he was in fact his brother. He said to him, لاَ تَبْتَئِسْ
not) nor feel sad for what they did to me.'
He ordered Binyamin to hide the news from them and to
refrain from telling them that the Aziz is his brother Yusuf. He plotted
with him to keep him in Egypt enjoying honor and great hospitality.
They said: "By
Allah! Indeed you know that we came not to make mischief in the land, and
we are no thieves!
`Ever since you knew us, you, due to our good conduct,
became certain that, مَّا جِئْنَا
لِنُفْسِدَ فِي الأَرْضِ وَمَا كُنَّا سَارِقِينَ (we came
not to make mischief in the land, and we are no thieves!).
They said, `Theft is not in our character, as you came to
They said: "His penalty should be that he, in whose bag it
is found, should be held for the punishment. Thus we punish the
This was the law of Prophet Ibrahim, peace be upon him,
that the thief be given as a slave to the victim of theft. This is what
Yusuf wanted, and this is why he started with their bags first before his
brother's bag, to perfect the plot,
He could not take his brother by the law of the king,
as a captive, for this was not the law of king of Egypt,
according to Ad-Dahhak and several other scholars.
Allah only allowed Yusuf to take his brother as a captive
after his brothers agreed to this judgement beforehand, and he knew that
this was their law.
إِلاَّ أَن يَشَاء اللّهُ
except that Allah willed it.
This is why Allah praised him when He said,
نَرْفَعُ دَرَجَاتٍ مِّن نَّشَاء
We raise to degrees whom We will,
just as He said in another Ayah,
الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ مِنكُمْ
Allah will exalt in degree those of you who believe. (58:11)
Allah said next,
وَفَوْقَ كُلِّ ذِي عِلْمٍ عَلِيمٌ
all those endowed with knowledge is the All-Knowing.
"There is no knowledgeable person, but there is another
person with more knowledge until it ends at Allah the Exalted and Most
In addition, Abdur-Razzaq recorded that Sa`id bin Jubayr said,
that we were with
Ibn Abbas when he narrated an amazing Hadith.
A man in the audience said,
`All praise is to Allah! There is an all-knowing above every person
endowed with knowledge.'
Ibn Abbas responded, `Worse it is that which you
said! Allah is the All-Knowing and His knowledge is above the knowledge of
every knowledgeable person.'
Simak narrated that Ikrimah said that Ibn
Abbas said about Allah's statement,
وَفَوْقَ كُلِّ ذِي عِلْمٍ عَلِيمٌ
(but over all those endowed with knowledge is the
has more knowledge than that person, and Allah is above all knowledgeable
Similar was narrated from Ikrimah.
person endowed with knowledge is a more knowledgeable person until all
knowledge ends with Allah. Verily, knowledge started from Allah, and from
Him the scholars learn, and to Him all knowledge returns.''
Mas`ud read the Ayah this way,
(وَفَوْقَ كُلِّ عاَلِمٍ عَلِيمٌ)
"And above every scholar, is the All-Knower (Allah).''
The eldest among them said: "Know you not
that your father did take an oath from you in Allah's Name, and before
this you did fail in your duty with Yusuf. Therefore I will not leave this
land until my father permits me, or Allah decides my case and He is the
Best of the judges.
So, when they despaired of him, they consulted in private.
narrates to us that Yusuf's brothers were desperate because they could not
secure the release of their brother Binyamin, even though they had given a
promise and sworn to their father to bring him back. They were unable to
fulfill their promise to their father, so, خَلَصُو (in
private), away from people's eyes, نَجِيًّا
consulted), among themselves,
eldest among them said,
and his name, as we mentioned, was Rubil, or
Yahudha. He was the one among them who recommended throwing Yusuf into a
well, rather than killing him. So Rubil said to them,
said: "Nay, but
your own selves have beguiled you into something. So patience is most
fitting (for me).
Muhammad bin Ishaq said,
"When they went back to Yaqub
and told him what happened, he did not believe them and thought that this
was a repetition of what they did to Yusuf. So he said, بَلْ سَوَّلَتْ لَكُمْ أَنفُسُكُمْ أَمْرًا
your own selves have beguiled you into something. So patience is most
fitting (for me).
Some said that; since this new development came after
what they did before (to
they were given the same judgement to this later incident that was given
to them when they did what they did (to
statement here is befitting, بَلْ سَوَّلَتْ لَكُمْ أَنفُسُكُمْ أَمْرًا
but your own selves have beguiled you into something. So patience is most
fitting (for me). He then begged Allah to bring back his three sons:
Yusuf, Binyamin and Rubil to him.''
Rubil had remained in Egypt awaiting
Allah's decision about his case, either his father's permission ordering
him to go back home, or to secure the release of his brother in
confidence. This is why Yaqub said,
"O my sons! Go you and inquire about Yusuf and his brother,
and never give up hope of Allah's mercy. Certainly no one despairs of
Allah's mercy, except the people who disbelieve.''
states that Yaqub, peace be upon him, ordered his children to go back and
inquire about the news of Yusuf and his brother Binyamin, in a good
manner, not as spies. He encouraged them, delivered to them the good news
and ordered them not to despair of Allah's mercy.
He ordered them to never give up hope in Allah, nor to ever
discontinue trusting in Him for what they seek to accomplish.
He said to them that only the disbelieving people despair
of Allah's mercy.
Yusuf reveals His True Identity to His
Brothers and forgives Them
says, when Yusuf's brothers told him about the afflictions and hardship,
and shortages in food they suffered from in the aftermath of the drought
that struck them, and he remembered his father's grief for losing his two
children, he felt compassion, pity and mercy for his father and brothers.
He felt this way, especially since he was enjoying kingship, authority and
power, so he cried and revealed his true identity to them when he asked
He said: "Do
you know what you did with Yusuf and his brother, when you were ignorant!
meaning, `when you separated between Yusuf and his
... إِذْ أَنتُمْ جَاهِلُونَ
when you were ignorant!
He said, `What made you do this is your ignorance of the
tremendous sin you were about to commit.'
It appears, and Allah knows best, that Yusuf revealed his
identity to his brothers only then by Allah's command, just as he hid his
identity from them in the first two meetings, by Allah's command. When the
affliction became harder, Allah sent His relief from that affliction, just
as He said He does,
Verily, along with every hardship is relief. Verily, along
with every hardship is relief.
in amazement, because they had been meeting him for more
than two years while unaware of who he really was. Yet, he knew who they
were and hid this news from them. Therefore, they asked in astonishment,
`I do indeed feel the smell of Yusuf, if only you think me
that you might think me senile because of old age.'
that Ibn Abbas said,
"When the caravan departed (from Egypt),
a wind started blowing and brought the scent of Yusuf's shirt to Yaqub. He
لَأَجِدُ رِيحَ يُوسُفَ لَوْلاَ أَن تُفَنِّدُونِ (I do
indeed feel the smell of Yusuf, if only you think me not senile.) He
found his scent from a distance of eight days away!''
Similar was also
reported through Sufyan Ath-Thawri and Shu`bah and others reported it from
Yaqub said to them,
لَوْلاَ أَن تُفَنِّدُونِ (if only
you think me not senile).
Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Ata, Qatadah and Sa'id
bin Jubayr commented,
Then, when the bearer of the good news arrived, he cast it
(the shirt) over his face, and his vision returned.
and Ad-Dahhak said; الْبَشِيرُ
Mujahid and As-Suddi said that;
the bearer of good
news was Yahudha, son of Yaqub.
"He brought it (Yusuf's
shirt) because it was he who brought Yusuf's shirt stained with the false
blood. So he liked to erase that error with this good act, by bringing
Yusuf's shirt and placing it on his father's face. His father's sight was
restored to him.''
"O our father! Ask forgiveness (from Allah) for our sins,
indeed we have been sinners.'' He said: "I will ask my Lord for
forgiveness for you, verily, He! Only He is the Oft-Forgiving, the Most
and He forgives those who repent to Him.
Abdullah bin Mas`ud, Ibrahim At-Taymi, `Amr bin Qays, Ibn
Jurayj and several others said that;
Prophet Yaqub delayed fulfilling their request until the
latter part of the night.
Then, when they came in before Yusuf, he took his parents
Yusuf had asked his brothers to
bring all of their family, and they all departed their area and left Kana`an to Egypt. When Yusuf received news of their approach to Egypt, he
went out to receive them.
The king ordered the princes and notable people
to go out in the receiving party with Yusuf to meet Allah's Prophet Yaqub,
peace be upon him. It is said that the king also went out with them to
Yusuf said to his family, after they entered unto him and
he took them to himself,
said: "O my father! This is the Ta'wil (interpretation) of my dream
in reference to the dream that he narrated to his father
before, إِنِّي رَأَيْتُ أَحَدَ عَشَرَ كَوْكَبًا (I saw (in
a dream) eleven stars...). (12:4)
In the laws of these and previous Prophets, it
was allowed for the people to prostrate before the men of authority, when
they met them. This practice was allowed in the law of Adam until the law
of `Isa, peace be upon them, but was later prohibited in our law.
made prostration exclusively for Allah Alone, the Exalted and Most
Honored. The implication of this statement was collected from Qatadah and
When Mu`adh bin Jabal visited the Sham area, he found them
prostrating before their priests. When he returned (to Al-Madinah), he
prostrated before the Messenger of Allah, who asked him,
مَا هَذَا يَا مُعَاذُ؟
this, O, Mu`adh?
Mu`adh said, "I saw that they prostrate before their
priests. However, you, O Messenger of Allah, deserve more to be prostrated
"My Lord! You have indeed bestowed on me of the
sovereignty, and taught me something of the interpretation of dreams - the
(Only) Creator of the heavens and the earth! You are my
Wali in this world and in the Hereafter.
Cause me to die as a Muslim, and join me with the righteous.''
This is the invocation of
Yusuf, the truthful one, to his Lord the Exalted and Most Honored. He
invoked Allah after His favor was complete on him by being reunited with
his parents and brothers, after He had bestowed on him Prophethood and
He begged his Lord the
Exalted and Ever High, that as He has perfected His bounty on him in this
life, to continue it until the Hereafter.
He begged Him that, when
he dies, he dies as a Muslim, as Ad-Dahhak said, and to join him with the
ranks of the righteous, with his brethren the Prophets and Messengers, may
Allah's peace and blessings be on them all.
It is possible that
Yusuf, peace be upon him, said this supplication while dying.
In the Two
Sahihs it is recorded that A'ishah, may
Allah be pleased with her, said that while dying, the Messenger of Allah
was raising his finger and said - thrice,
O Allah to
Ar-Rafiq Al-A`la (the
uppermost, highest company in heaven).
It is also possible that long before he died, Yusuf begged Allah to die as
a Muslim and be joined with the ranks of the righteous.
That is of the
news of the Ghayb (Unseen) which We
reveal to you.
Allah narrated to
Muhammad, peace be upon him, the story of Yusuf and his brothers and how
Allah raised him over them, giving him the better end, triumph, the
sovereignty and wisdom (i.e., Prophethood), even though they tried to harm
and kill him.
Allah said, `This and
similar stories are part of the unseen incidents of the past, O Muhammad, نُوحِيهِ إِلَيْكَ (which We reveal to you)
and inform you of, O Muhammad, because it carries a lesson, for you to
draw from and a reminder to those who defy you.'
Allah said next,
... وَمَا كُنتَ لَدَيْهِمْ ...
`You were not (present)
you did not witness their
conference nor saw them,
... إِذْ أَجْمَعُواْ أَمْرَهُمْ ...
when they arranged their
to throw Yusuf into the
... وَهُمْ يَمْكُرُونَ﴿١٠٢﴾
and (while) they were
against him. We taught
you all this through Our Revelation which We sent down to you.'
And you were not a
dweller among the people of Madyan, reciting Our verses to them.
states that Muhammad is His Messenger and that He has taught him the news of
what occurred in the past, which carry lessons for people to draw from, so
that they acquire their safety in their religious affairs as well as their
worldly affairs. Yet, most people did not and will not believe, so Allah
Allah says, `You, O
Muhammad, do not ask them in return for this advice and your call to all
that is good and righteous, for any price or compensation for delivering
it. Rather, you do so seeking Allah's Face and to deliver good and sincere
advice to His creatures,
... إِنْ هُوَ إِلاَّ ذِكْرٌ لِّلْعَالَمِينَ﴿١٠٤﴾
it (the Qur'an) is no
less than a Reminder unto the `Alamin (men and Jinn).
with which they
remember, receive guidance and save themselves in this life and the
And how many a sign in the heavens and the earth they pass
by, while they are averse therefrom.
Allah states that most
people do not think about His signs and proofs of His Oneness that He
created in the heavens and earth.
Allah created brilliant
stars and rotating heavenly objects and planets, all made subservient.
There are many plots of fertile land next to each other on earth, and
gardens, solid mountains, lively oceans, with their waves smashing against
each other, and spacious deserts. There are many live creatures and others
that have died; and animals, plants and fruits that are similar in shape,
but different in taste, scent, color and attributes.
All praise is due to
Allah the One and Only, Who created all types of creations, Who Alone will
remain and last forever. It is He Who is unique in His Names and
And most of them believe
not in Allah except that they attribute partners unto Him.
"They have a part of faith, for when they are asked, `Who
created the heavens? Who created the earth? Who created the mountains?' They
say, `Allah did.' Yet, they associate others with Him in worship.''
Similar is said by Mujahid, Ata, Ikrimah, Ash-Sha`bi, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak
and Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam.
Sahih, it is recorded that;
Hajj season, the idolators used to say in
their Talbiyah: "Here we rush to Your
service. You have no partners with You, except a partner with You whom You
own but he owns not!''
Allah said in another
Verily, joining others
in worship with Allah is a great Zulm
(wrong) indeed. (31:13)
This indeed is
type of Shirk, associating others with
Allah in worship.
It is recorded in the Two
Sahihs that Abdullah bin Mas`ud said,
"I said, `O Allah's
Messenger! What is the greatest sin?'
أَنْ تَجْعَلَ للهِ
نِدًّا وَهُوَ خَلَقَك
That you call a rival to
Allah while He alone created you.''
commented on Allah's statement, وَمَا يُؤْمِنُ أَكْثَرُهُمْ بِاللّهِ إِلاَّ وَهُم
(And most of them believe not in Allah except that they attribute partners
"This is the hypocrite;
if he performs good deeds, he does so to show off with the people, and he
is an idolator while doing this.''
Verily, the hypocrites
seek to deceive Allah, but it is He Who deceives them. And when they stand
up for As-Salah, they stand with laziness and to be seen of men, and they
do not remember Allah but little. (4:142)
There is another type of hidden
Shirk that most people are unaware of.
Hammad bin Salamah narrated that Asim
bin Abi An-Najud said that Urwah said,
"Hudhayfah visited an ill man and
saw a rope tied around his arm, so he ripped it off while reciting,
وَمَا يُؤْمِنُ أَكْثَرُهُمْ بِاللّهِ إِلاَّ وَهُم
(And most of them believe not in Allah except that they attribute partners
Hadith, from Ibn Umar collected by
At-Tirmidhi who said it was Hasan, the Prophet said,
مَنْ حَلَفَ بِغَيْرِ
اللهِ فَقَدْ أَشْرَك
He who swears by other
than Allah, commits Shirk.
Imam Ahmad, Abu Dawud and
other scholars of Hadith narrated that
Abdullah bin Mas`ud said that the Messenger of Allah said,
وَالتَّمَائِمَ وَالتِّوَلَةَ شِرْك
and At-Tiwalah are all acts of
In another narration
collected by Ahmad and Abu Dawud, the Prophet said,
Do then those who devise
evil plots feel secure that Allah will not sink them into the earth, or
that the torment will not seize them from directions they perceive not! Or
that He may catch them in the midst of their going to and from, so that
there be no escape for them (from Allah's punishment)! Or that He may
catch them with gradual wasting (of their wealth and health)!
Truly, Your Lord is
indeed full of kindness, Most Merciful. (16:45-47)
Did the people of the
towns then feel secure against the coming of Our punishment by night while
they were asleep! Or, did the people of the towns then feel secure against
the coming of Our punishment in the forenoon while they were playing! Did
they then feel secure against the plan of Allah!
None feels secure from
the plan of Allah except the people who are the losers. (7:97-99)
Say "This is my way; I invite unto Allah with sure
knowledge, I and whosoever follows me. And Glorified and Exalted be Allah. And I am not of the
Allah orders His
Messenger to say to mankind and the Jinns that this is his way, meaning,
his method, path and Sunnah,
concentrating on calling to the testimony that there is no deity worthy of
worship except Allah alone without partners.
The Messenger calls to
this testimonial with sure knowledge, certainty and firm evidence. He
calls to this way, and those who followed him call to what Allah's
Messenger called to with sure knowledge, certainty and evidence, whether
logical or religious evidence,
... وَسُبْحَانَ اللّهِ ...
And Glorified and Exalted
This part of the
Ayah means, I glorify, honor, revere and
praise Allah from having a partner, equal, rival, parent, son, wife,
minister or advisor. All praise and honor be to Allah, glorified He is
from all that they attribute to Him,
The seven heavens and the
earth and all that is therein, glorify Him, and there is not a thing but
glorifies His praise. But you understand not their glorification. Truly,
He is Ever Forbearing, Oft-Forgiving. (17:44)
And We sent not before you (as Messengers) any but men unto
whom We revealed,
Allah states that He only
sent Prophets and Messengers from among men and not from among women, as
this Ayah clearly states.
Allah did not reveal religious and legislative
laws to any woman from among the daughters of Adam. This is the belief of
Sheikh Abu Al-Hasan, Ali bin
it is the view of
Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah, that there were
no female Prophets, but there were truthful believers from among women.
Allah mentions the most honorable of the truthful female believers,
Maryam, the daughter of Imran, when He said,
son of Maryam (Mary), was no more than a Messenger; many were the
Messengers that passed away before him. His
mother was a Siddiqah
(truthful believer). They both used to eat food. (5:75)
Therefore, the best description Allah gave her is
Had she been a
Prophet, Allah would have mentioned this fact when He was praising her
qualities and honor. Therefore,
Mary was a truthful believer according to the words of the Qur'an.
All Prophets were
Humans not Angels
Ad-Dahhak reported that
Ibn `Abbas commented on Allah's statement, وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ إِلاَّ رِجَالاً
(And We sent not before you (as Messengers) any but men),
"They were not from among
the residents of the heaven (angels), as you claimed.''
This statement of Ibn
Abbas is supported by Allah's statements,
And We did not create
them with bodies that ate not food, nor were they immortals. Then We
fulfilled to them the promise. So We saved them and those whom We willed,
but We destroyed extravagant, (21:8-9)
قُلْ مَا كُنتُ
بِدْعاً مِّنَ الرُّسُلِ
Say: "I am not a new
thing among the Messengers.'' (46:9)
Allah said next,
مِّنْ أَهْلِ الْقُرَى
from among the people of
meaning, from among the people of cities, not that they were
sent among the Bedouins who are some of the harshest and roughest of all
Drawing Lessons from
the Incidents of the Past
Allah said next,
أَفَلَمْ يَسِيرُواْ فِي الأَرْضِ
Have they not traveled in
meaning, `Have not these
people who rejected you, O Muhammad, traveled in the land,'
Verily, We will indeed
make victorious Our Messengers and those who believe in this world's life
and on the Day when the witnesses will stand forth (i.e. Day of
Resurrection). The Day when their excuses will be of no profit to the
wrongdoers. Theirs will be the curse, and theirs will be the evil abode
(in Hellfire). (40:51-52)
were so shaken that even the Messenger and those who believed along with
him said, "When (will come) the help of Allah!'' (2:214)
As for saying of Allah, كُذِبُواْ (they were denied),
are two recitations for it.
One of them is with a
Shadda (meaning: they
were betrayed by their people).
And this is the way A'ishah, may Allah be
pleased with her, recited it.
Al-Bukhari said that Urwah bin Az-Zubayr
narrated that he asked Aishah about the meaning of the following verse,
حَتَّى إِذَا اسْتَيْأَسَ الرُّسُلُ
(`Until when the Messengers give up hope...),
Respite will be granted,
is it denied or betrayed?
Urwah said, "I said,
`They were sure that their people betrayed them, so why use the word
She said, `Yes, they were
sure that they betrayed them.'
أَنَّهُمْ قَدْ كُذِبُواْ (and they thought that
they were denied (by Allah))!
A'0ishah said, `Allah forbid! The Messengers
did not suspect their Lord of such a thing.'
I asked, `So what does this
`This Verse is concerned with the Messengers'
followers who had faith in their Lord and believed in their Messengers.
The period of trials for those followers was long and Allah's help was
delayed until the Messengers gave up hope for the conversion of the
disbelievers amongst their nation and suspected that even their followers
were shaken in their belief, Allah's help then came to them.'''
narrated that Ibn Abi Mulaikah said that Ibn Abbas read this
أَنَّهُمْ قَدْ كُذِبُواْ
and they thought they
Abdullah bin Abi Mulaikah
"Then Ibn Abbas said to
me that they were humans. He then recited this
the Messenger and those who believed along with him said, "When (will
come) the help of Allah!''
Yes! Certainly, the help
of Allah is near! (2:214)''
Ibn Jurayj also narrated that Ibn
Abi Mulaykah said that Urwah narrated to him that;
Aishah did not agree
to this and rejected it. She said,
"Nothing that Allah has promised
Muhammad, peace be upon him, but Muhammad knew for certainty that it shall
come, until he died. However, the Messengers were tried with trials until
they thought that those believers, who were with them, did not fully
Ibn Abi Mulaykah said that Urwah narrated that Aishah
recited this Ayah this way,
أَنَّهُمْ قَدْ كُذَّبُواْ
and they thought
that they were betrayed.
Therefore, there is
another way of reciting this word, and there is a difference of opinion
about its meaning.
We narrated the meaning
that Ibn Abbas gave.
Ibn Mas`ud said, as
Sufyan Ath-Thawri narrated from him, that he read the
Ayah this way,
until, when the
Messengers gave up hope and thought that they were denied.
Abdullah commented that
this is the recitation that you dislike.
Ibn Abbas also commented
on the Ayah, حَتَّى إِذَا اسْتَيْأَسَ الرُّسُلُ وَظَنُّواْ
أَنَّهُمْ قَدْ كُذِبُواْ
(until, when the Messengers gave up hope and thought that they were
"When the Messengers gave
up hope that their people would accept their messages, and their people
thought that their Messengers had not said the truth to them, Allah's
victory came then, فَنُجِّيَ مَن نَّشَاء (and whomsoever We willed
Ibn Jarir At-Tabari narrated that Ibrahim bin Abi Hamzah
"A young man from
Quraysh asked Sa'id bin Jubayr `O, Abu Abdullah! How do you read this
word, for when I pass by it, I wish I had not read this
until, when the
Messengers gave up hope and thought that they were denied...
He said, `Yes, it means,
when the Messengers gave up hope that their people will believe in them
and those to whom the Messengers were sent thought that the Messengers
were not truthful.'''
Ad-Dahhak bin Muzahim
"I have not seen someone
who is called to knowledge and is lazy accepting the invitation, until
today! If you traveled to Yemen just to get this explanation, it will
still be worth it.''
Ibn Jarir At-Tabari
Muslim bin Yasar asked
Sa`id bin Jubayr about the same Ayah
and he gave the same response. Muslim stood up and embraced Sa'id bin
Jubayr, saying, "May Allah relieve a distress from you as you relieved a
distress from me!''
This was reported from
Sa'id bin Jubayr through various chains of narration.
This is also the
Tafsir that Mujahid bin Jabr and several
other Salaf scholars gave for this
However, some scholars
said that the Ayah, وَظَنُّواْ
أَنَّهُمْ قَدْ كُذِبُواْ (and thought that they
is in reference to the
believers who followed the Messengers, while some said it is in reference
to the disbelievers among the Messengers' nation. In the latter case, the
`and the disbelievers
thought that the Messengers were not given a true promise of victory.'
Ibn Jarir At-Tabari narrated that Tamim bin Hadhlam
said that I heard Abdullah bin Mas`ud comment on this
Ayah, حَتَّى إِذَا اسْتَيْأَسَ الرُّسُلُ
(until, when the
Messengers gave up hope),
people will believe in them, and their people thought when the respite was
long, that the Messengers were not given a true promise.''
Indeed in their stories, there is a lesson for men of
Allah states here that
the stories of the Messengers and their nations and how we saved the
believers and destroyed the disbelievers are, عِبْرَةٌ لِّأُوْلِي
(a lesson for men of understanding), who have sound minds.
مَا كَانَ حَدِيثًا يُفْتَرَى
It is not a forged
Allah says here that this
Qur'an could not have been forged; it truly came from Allah,
in reference to the
previously revealed Divine Books, by which this Qur'an testifies to the
true parts that remain in them and denies and refutes the forged parts
that were added, changed and falsified by people.
The Qur'an accepts or
abrogates whatever Allah wills of these Books
وَتَفْصِيلَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ
and a detailed
explanation of everything,
Meaning the allowed, the
prohibited, the preferred and the disliked matters.
The Qur'an deals with the
acts of worship, the obligatory and recommended matters, forbids the
unlawful and discourages from the disliked.
The Qur'an contains major
facts regarding the existence and about matters of the future in general
terms or in detail.
The Qur'an tells us about
the Lord, the Exalted and Most Honored, and about His Names and Attributes
and teaches us that Allah is glorified from being similar in any way to
Hence, the Qur'an is,
a guide and a mercy for
the people who believe.
with which their hearts
are directed from misguidance to guidance and from deviation to
conformance, and with which they seek the mercy of the Lord of all
creation in this life and on the Day of Return.
We ask Allah the Most
Great to make us among this group in the life of the present world and in
the Hereafter, on the Day when those who are successful will have faces
that radiate with light, while those whose faces are dark will end up with
the losing deal.
This is the end of the
Tafsir of Surah Yusuf; and all the
thanks and praises are due to Allah, and all our trust and reliance are on