Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said: "(خَاشِعُونَKhashi`un)
means those with fear and with tranquility.''
This was also narrated from Mujahid, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and Az-Zuhri.
It was reported from Ali bin Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him, that;
Khushu` means the
Khushu` of the heart.
This was also the view of Ibrahim An-Nakha`i.
Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, "Their Khushu` was in
So they lowered their gaze and were humble towards others.
in prayer is only attained by the one who has emptied his heart totally, who
does not pay attention to anything else besides it, and who prefers it above all
else. At that point it becomes a delight and a joy for eyes, as in the
Hadith recorded by Imam Ahmad and An-Nasa'i
from Anas, who said that the Messenger of Allah said:
Most commentators say that the meaning here is the
Zakah that is paid on wealth, even though this
Ayah was revealed in Makkah, and
Zakah was ordained in Al-Madinah in the year
The apparent meaning is that the Zakah that
was instituted in Al-Madinah is the one based upon the
Nusub and the specific amounts, apart from
which it seems that the basic principle of Zakah
was enjoined in Makkah. As Allah says in Surah Al-An`am,
which was also revealed in Makkah:
وَءَاتُواْ حَقَّهُ يَوْمَ حَصَادِهِ
but pay the due thereof
on the day of their harvest, (6:141)
It could be that what is meant here by Zakah
is purification of the soul from Shirk and
filth, as in the Ayah:
Indeed he succeeds who
purifies himself (Zakkaha). And indeed he fails who corrupts himself. (91:9-10)
It could be that both meanings are intended, purification of the soul and of
one's wealth, because that is part of the purification of the soul, and the true
believer is one who pays attention to both matters.
But whoever seeks beyond
that, then those are the transgressors.
means, those who protect their private parts from unlawful actions and do not do
that which Allah has forbidden; fornication and homosexuality, and do not
approach anyone except the wives whom Allah has made permissible for them or
their right hand possessions from the captives. One who seeks what Allah has
made permissible for him is not to be blamed and there is no sin on him.
If you ask Allah for Paradise, then ask him for Al-Firdaws, for
it is the highest part of Paradise, in the middle of Paradise, and from it
spring the rivers of Paradise, and above it is the (Mighty) Throne of the Most
Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said, The Messenger of Allah said:
There is not one among you who does not have two homes, a home in
Paradise and a home in Hell. If he dies and enters Hell, the people of Paradise
will inherit his home, and this is what Allah said:
أُوْلَئِكَ هُمُ الْوَارِثُونَ
(These are indeed the heirs).
Ibn Jurayj narrated from Layth from Mujahid:
أُوْلَئِكَ هُمُ الْوَارِثُونَ,
"The believers will inherit the homes of the disbelievers because they were
created to worship Allah Alone with no partner or associate. So when these
believers did what was enjoined on them of worship, and the disbelievers
neglected to do that which they were commanded to do and for which they had been
created, the believers gained the share that they would have been given if they
had obeyed their Lord. Indeed, they will be given more than that as well.''
This is what was reported in Sahih Muslim
from Abu Burdah, from his father, from the Prophet who said:
When the Day of Resurrection comes, Allah will appoint for every
Muslim a Jew or Christian, and it will be said,
"This is your ransom from the Fire.''
Umar bin Abd Al-Aziz asked Abu Burdah to swear by Allah besides Whom there is no
other God, three times, that his father told him that from the Prophet, and he
swore that oath. I say: this Ayah is like
Then We made the Nutfah into a clot, then We made the clot into a
little lump of flesh, then We made out of that little lump of flesh
bones, then We clothed the bones with flesh, and then We brought it
forth as another creation.
فَتَبَارَكَ اللَّهُ أَحْسَنُ الْخَـلِقِينَ
So Blessed is Allah, the Best of creators.
ثُمَّ إِنَّكُمْ بَعْدَ ذلِكَ لَمَيِّتُونَ
After that, surely you will die.
ثُمَّ إِنَّكُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَـمَةِ تُبْعَثُونَ
Then (again), surely you will be resurrected on the Day of
And indeed We created man
out of an extract of Tin.
Allah tells us how He initially created man from an extract of
Tin. This was Adam, peace be upon him, whom
Allah created from sounding clay of altered black smooth mud.
Ibn Jarir said, "Adam was called Tin because
he was created from it.''
Qatadah said, "Adam was created from Tin.''
This is the more apparent meaning and is closer to the context, for Adam, upon
him be peace, was created from a sticky Tin,
which is a sounding clay of altered black smooth mud, and that is created from
dust, as Allah says:
meaning, `then We made the Nutfah, which is
the water gushing forth that comes from the loins of man, i.e., his back, and
the ribs of woman, i.e., the bones of her chest, between the clavicle and the
breast. Then it becomes a red clot, like an elongated clot.'
Ikrimah said, "This is blood.''
... فَخَلَقْنَا الْعَلَقَةَ مُضْغَةً ...
then We made the clot into
a little lump of flesh,
which is like a piece of flesh with no shape or features.
... فَخَلَقْنَا الْمُضْغَةَ عِظَامًا ...
then We made out of that
little lump of flesh bones,
meaning, `We gave it shape, with a head, two arms and two legs, with its bones,
nerves and veins.'
... فَكَسَوْنَا الْعِظَامَ لَحْمًا ...
then We clothed the bones
meaning, `We gave it something to cover it and strengthen it.'
... ثُمَّ أَنشَأْنَاهُ خَلْقًا آخَرَ ...
and then We brought it
forth as another creation.
means, `then We breathed the soul into it, and it moved and became a new
creature, one that could hear, see, understand and move.
ثُمَّ أَنشَأْنَاهُ خَلْقًا آخَرَ
Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn Abbas said,
"We change it from one stage to another until it emerges as an infant, then it
grows up through the stages of being a child, adolescent, youth, mature man, old
man and senile man.''
Imam Ahmad recorded in his Musnad that
Abdullah -- Ibn Mas`ud -- said,
"The Messenger of Allah, the Truthful One, told us:
The creation of anyone of you is gathered for forty days in his
mother's stomach as a Nutfah, then he becomes a clot for a similar period of
time, then he becomes a little lump of flesh for a similar length of time.
Then the angel is sent to him and he breathes the soul into it,
and four things are decreed:
whether he will be wretched or blessed.
By the One besides Whom there is no other god, one of you may do
the deeds of the people of Paradise until there is no more than a forearm's
length between him and it, then the decree will overtake him and he will do the
deeds of the people of Hell and thus enter Hell.
And a man may do the deeds of the people of Hell until there is
no more than a forearm's length between him and it, then the decree will
overtake him and he will do finally the deeds of the people of Paradise and thus
means, when Allah mentions His ability and subtlety in creating this
Nutfah and taking it from stage to stage
until it takes the shape of a perfectly formed human being, He says,
فَتَبَارَكَ اللَّهُ أَحْسَنُ الْخَالِقِينَ
(So Blessed is Allah, the Best of creators).
Then (again), surely you
will be resurrected on the Day of Resurrection.
means, you will be created anew.
ثُمَّ اللَّهُ يُنشِىءُ النَّشْأَةَ الاٌّخِرَةَ
and then Allah will
bring forth the creation of the Hereafter. (29:20),
means, the Day of Return, when the souls will be restored to their bodies and
all of creation will be brought to account. Everyone will be rewarded or
punished according to his deeds -- if they are good then he will be rewarded,
and if they are bad then he will be punished.
The creation of the
heavens and the earth is indeed greater than the creation of mankind. (40:57)
A similar Ayah appears at the beginning of
Surah As-Sajdah, which the Messenger of Allah
used to recite on Friday mornings. At the beginning it mentions the creation of
the heavens and earth, then it says how man was created from semen from clay,
and it also discusses the resurrection and rewards and punishments, and other
(seven Tara'iq). Mujahid said, "This means
the seven heavens.''
It is Allah Who has
created seven heavens and of the earth the like thereof. His command descends
between them (heavens and earth), that you may know that Allah has power over
all things, and that Allah surrounds all things in (His) knowledge. (65:12)
Similarly, Allah says here
وَلَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا فَوْقَكُمْ سَبْعَ طَرَائِقَ وَمَا كُنَّا عَنِ الْخَلْقِ
And indeed We have created above you seven Tara'iq,
and We are never unaware of the creation.
meaning, Allah knows what goes into the earth and what comes out of it, what
comes down from heaven and what goes up into it. He is with you wherever you
are, and Allah sees what you do. No heaven is hidden from Him by another and no
earth is hidden from Him by another. There is no mountain but He knows its
features, and no sea but He knows what is in its depths. He knows the numbers of
what is in the mountains, the hills, the sands, the seas, the landscapes and the
meaning, according to what is needed, not so much that it damages the lands and
buildings, and not so little to be insufficient for crops and fruits, but
whatever is needed for irrigation, drinking and other benefits. If there is a
land that needs a lot of water for its irrigation but its fertile soil would be
carried away if rain fell on it, then Allah sends water to it from another land,
as in the case of Egypt, which is said to be a barren land. Allah sends the
water of the Nile to it, which brings red soil from Ethiopia when it rains
there. The water brings the red soil which is used to irrigate the land of
Egypt, and whatever of it is deposited is used for agriculture, because the land
of Egypt is infertile, and most of it is sand. Glory be to the Subtle One, the
All-Knowing, the Most Merciful, the Forgiving.
... فَأَسْكَنَّاهُ فِي الْأَرْضِ ...
and We gave it lodging in
means, `when the water comes down from the clouds, We cause it to settle in the
earth, and We cause the earth to absorb it and the seeds etc. in the earth to be
nourished by it.'
... وَإِنَّا عَلَى ذَهَابٍ بِهِ لَقَادِرُونَ ﴿١٨﴾
and verily, We are able to take it away.
-`if We wanted to
cause it not to rain, We could do so;
-if We wanted to
divert it towards the wilderness and wastelands, We could do so;
-if We wanted to
make it salty so that you could not benefit from it for drinking or irrigation,
We could do so;
-if We wanted to
cause it not to be absorbed by the earth, but to remain on the surface, We could
-if We wanted to
make it go deep underground where you would not be able to reach it and you
could not benefit from it, We could do so.'
But by His grace and mercy, He causes sweet, fresh water to fall on you from the
clouds, then it settles in the earth and forms springs and rivers, and you use
it to irrigate your crops and fruits, and you drink it and give it to your
livestock and cattle, and you bathe and purify yourselves with it. To Him is due
the praise and thanks.
Then We brought forth for
you therewith gardens of date palms and grapes,
means, `from that which We send down from the sky, We bring forth for you
gardens and orchards which look beautiful.'
... مِّن نَّخِيلٍ وَأَعْنَابٍ ...
of date palms and grapes,
These were the kinds of gardens that were known to the people of the Hijaz, but
there is no difference between a thing and its counterpart. The people of each
region have fruits which are the blessing of Allah given to them, and for which
they cannot properly thank Allah enough.
Here Allah mentions the benefits He has given to His servants in cattle, for
they drink their milk which comes out from between dung and blood, they eat
their meat and clothe themselves with their wool and hair, they ride on their
backs and carry heavy burdens on them to far away lands, as Allah says:
Do they not see that We
have created for them of what Our Hands have created, the cattle, so that they
are their owners. And We have subdued them unto them so that some of them they
have for riding and some they eat. And in them there are benefits for them, and
drink. Will they not then be grateful! (36:71-73)
"He is no more than a human being like you, he seeks to make
himself superior to you. Had Allah willed, He surely could have sent
down angels. Never did we hear such a thing among our fathers of
Allah tells us about Nuh, peace be upon him, whom He sent him to his people to
warn them of the severe punishment of Allah and His severe vengeance on those
who associated partners with Him, defied His commands and disbelieved His
So, We revealed to him: "Construct the ship under Our Eyes and
under Our revelation. Then, when Our command comes, and (water)
gushes forth from the oven, take on board of each kind two, and your
family, except those thereof against whom the Word has already gone
forth. And address Me not in favor of those who have done wrong.
Verily, they are to be drowned.''
So, We revealed to him:
"Construct the ship under Our Eyes and under Our revelation. Then, when Our
command comes, and (water) gushes forth from the oven, take on board of each
kind two, and your family,
At that point, Allah commanded him to build a boat and to make it strong and
firm, and to carry therein of every kind two, i.e., a male and a female of every
species of animals, plants and fruits etc. He was also to carry his family,
And address Me not in favor
of those who have done wrong. Verily, they are to be drowned.
means, `when you witness the heavy rain falling, do not let yourself be overcome
with compassion and pity for your people, or hope for more time for them so that
they may believe, for I have decreed that they will be drowned and will die in
their state of disbelief and wrongdoing.'
The story has already been told in detail in Surah
Hud, and there is no need to repeat it here.
and has appointed for
you ships and cattle on which you ride: In order that you may mount on their
backs, and then may remember the favor of your Lord when you mount thereon, and
say: "Glory to Him Who has subjected this to us, and we could never have it (by
our efforts). And verily, to Our Lord we indeed are to return!'' (43:12-14)
So, certainly, Nuh adhered to what he was commanded, as Allah says elsewhere:
means in this event, which is the saving of the believers and the destruction of
the disbelievers there are signs, i.e., clear evidence and proof that the
Prophets speak the truth in the Message they bring from Allah, may He be
exalted, and that Allah does what He wills, and He is able to do all things and
knows all things.
... وَإِن كُنَّا لَمُبْتَلِينَ
for sure We are ever
putting (men) to the test.
means, `We try Our servants by means of sending the Messengers.'
If you were to obey a human
being like yourselves, then verily, you indeed would be losers.''
Allah tells us that after the people of Nuh, He created another nation.
It was said that this was `Ad, because they
were the successors of the people of Nuh.
Or it was said that they were Thamud, because
Allah says: فَأَخَذَتْهُمُ الصَّيْحَةُ بِالْحَقِّ
(So, the Sayhah overtook them in truth).
Allah sent to them a Messenger from among themselves, and he called them to
worship Allah Alone with no partner or associate, but they belied him, opposed
him and refused to follow him because he was a human being like them, and they
refused to follow a human Messenger. They did not believe in the meeting with
Allah on the Day of Resurrection and they denied the idea of physical
No nation can advance their
term, nor can they delay it.
means, they are taken at the appropriate time, as decreed by Allah in His Book
that is preserved with Him, before they were created, nation after nation,
century after century, generation after generation, successors after
And indeed We gave Musa the
Scripture, that they may be guided.
Allah tells us that He sent Musa, peace be upon him, and his brother Harun
to Fir`awn and his chiefs with decisive evidence and definitive proof, but
Fir`awn and his people were too arrogant to follow them and obey their
commands because they were human beings, just as previous nations had denied
the Message of the human Messengers. They were of a similar mentality, so
Allah destroyed Fir`awn and his chiefs, drowning them all in one day. He
revealed the Book to Musa, i.e., the Tawrah,
in which were rulings, commands and prohibitions, after He had destroyed
Fir`awn and the Egyptians and seized them with a punishment of the
All-Mighty, All-Capable to carry out what He wills.
After Allah revealed the Tawrah, Allah
did not destroy any nation with an overwhelming calamity; instead, He
commanded the believers to fight the disbelievers, as He says:
And We made the son of Maryam and his mother as a sign,
Allah tells us about His servant and Messenger `Isa bin Maryam, peace be upon
them both, and that He made them as a sign for mankind, i.e., definitive proof
of His ability to do what He wills. For He created Adam without a father or a
mother, He created Hawwa' from a male without
a female, and He created `Isa from a female without a male, but He created the
rest of mankind from both male and female.
and We gave them refuge on high ground, a place of rest, security and flowing
Ad-Dahhak reported that Ibn Abbas said:
"Ar-Rabwah is a raised portion of land, which
is the best place for vegetation to grow.''
This was also the view of Mujahid, Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr and Qatadah.
Ibn Abbas said,
ذَاتِ قَرَارٍ (Dhat
Qarar) "A fertile place.
Ma`in) means water running on the surface.''
This was also the view of Mujahid, Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr and Qatadah.
"A level hill.''
Sa`id bin Jubayr said that ذَاتِ قَرَارٍ وَمَعِينٍ
(Dhat Qarar and Ma`in) means,
that water was flowing gently through it.
Mujahid and Qatadah said:
(and Ma`in), "Running water.''
Ibn Abi Hatim recorded from Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib:
وَآوَيْنَاهُمَا إِلَى رَبْوَةٍ ذَاتِ قَرَارٍ وَمَعِينٍ
(and We gave them refuge on a Rabwah, Dhat Qarar
"It is Damascus.''
"Something similar was also narrated from Abdullah bin Salam, Al-Hasan, Zayd bin
Aslam and Khalid bin Ma`dan.''
Ibn Abi Hatim recorded from Ikrimah from Ibn Abbas that;
this Ayah referred to the rivers of Damascus.
Layth bin Abi Sulaym narrated from
Mujahid that the words; وَآوَيْنَاهُمَا إِلَى رَبْوَةٍ
(and We gave them refuge on a Rabwah),
referred to `Isa bin Maryam and his mother when they sought refuge in Damascus
and the flatlands around it.
Abdur-Razzaq recorded that Abu Hurayrah said:
إِلَى رَبْوَةٍ ذَاتِ قَرَارٍ وَمَعِينٍ (on a
Qarar and Ma`in),
"It is Ramlah in Palestine.''
The most correct opinion on this matter is that which was reported by Al-Awfi
from Ibn Abbas, who said; وَآوَيْنَاهُمَا إِلَى رَبْوَةٍ ذَاتِ قَرَارٍ وَمَعِينٍ
(and We gave them refuge on a Rabwah, Dhat Qarar
"Ma`in refers to running water, and is the
river of which Allah mentioned:
قَدْ جَعَلَ رَبُّكِ تَحْتَكِ سَرِيّاً
your Lord has provided a water stream under you.'' (19:24)
Ad-Dahhak and Qatadah said; إِلَى رَبْوَةٍ ذَاتِ قَرَارٍ وَمَعِينٍ
(on a high ground, a place of rest, security and flowing streams),
refers to Jerusalem.
This -- and Allah knows best -- is the most apparent meaning, because it is
mentioned in the other Ayah, and parts of the
Qur'an explain other parts, so it is more appropriate to interpret it by another
Ayah, then the
Sahih Hadiths, then other reports.
Allah commands His servants and Messengers, peace be upon them all, to eat
lawful food and do righteous deeds, which indicates that eating what is lawful
helps one to do righteous deeds. The Prophets, peace be upon them, did this in
the most perfect manner, and did all kinds of good deeds in words, actions,
guidance and advice. May Allah reward them with good on behalf of the people.
... كُلُوا مِنَ الطَّيِّبَاتِ ...
Eat of the Tayyibat,
Sa`id bin Jubayr and Ad-Dahhak said, "This means lawful."
In the Sahih it says:
وَمَا مِنْ نَبِيَ إِلَّا رَعَى الْغَنَم
There is no Prophet who was not a shepherd.
They asked, "And you, O Messenger of Allah!'' He said,
and his food, drink and clothing are unlawful, and he has
nourished himself with what is unlawful, and he extends his hands towards the
sky, saying, `O Lord, O Lord!' -- how can his prayer be answered.
At-Tirmidhi said that it is "Hasan Gharib.''
The Religion of all the Prophets is
Tawhid; and the Warning against splitting into different Groups
Allah has distributed your behavior to you just as He has
distributed your provision. Allah gives the things of this world to those whom
He loves and those whom He does not love, but He only gives religious commitment
to those whom He loves. Whoever is given religious commitment by Allah is loved
By the One in Whose Hand is my soul, no servant truly submits
until his heart and his tongue submit, and he does not truly believe until his
neighbor is safe from his harm.
They said, `What is his harm, O Messenger of Allah!'
His wrongdoing and misbehavior. No person who earns unlawful
wealth and spends it will be blessed in that; if he gives it in charity, it will
not be accepted from him and if he leaves it behind (when he dies), it will be
his provision in the Fire.
Allah does not wash away an evil deed with another, but he washes
away evil deeds with good deeds, for impurity cannot wash away with another
means, they believe in His universal and legislative signs, as Allah says about
Maryam, peace be upon her:
وَصَدَّقَتْ بِكَلِمَـتِ رَبَّهَا وَكُتُبِهِ
and she testified to the
truth of the Words of her Lord, and His Scriptures. (66:12),
meaning that she believed that whatever existed was by the will and decree of
Allah, and that whatever Allah decreed, if it was a command, it would be
something that He liked and accepted; if it was a prohibition, it would be
something that He disliked and rejected; and if it was good, it would be true.
This is like the Ayah:
And those who join not
anyone (in worship) as partners with their Lord;
meaning, they do not worship anyone or anything else besides Him, but they
worship Him Alone and know that there is no god except Allah Alone, the One, the
Self-Sufficient Master, Who does not take a wife or have any offspring, and
there is none comparable or equal unto Him.
And We task not any person
except according to his capacity,
Allah tells us of His justice towards His servants in this world, in that He
does not task any person except according to his capacity, i.e., He does not
burden any soul with more than it can bear. On the Day of Resurrection He will
call them to account for their deeds, which He has recorded in a written Book
from which nothing is omitted.
... وَلَدَيْنَا كِتَابٌ يَنطِقُ بِالْحَقِّ ...
and with Us is a Record
which speaks the truth,
meaning, the Book of deeds
... وَهُمْ لَا يُظْلَمُونَ
and they will not be
means, nothing will be omitted from their record of good deeds. As for evil
deeds, He will forgive and overlook many of them in the case of His believing
Then Allah says, denouncing the disbelievers and idolators of the Quraysh:
and they have other deeds,
besides which they are doing.
Al-Hakam bin Aban narrated from Ikrimah, from Ibn Abbas that;
(and they have other deeds), means, evil deeds apart from that, i.e.,
هُمْ لَهَا عَامِلُونَ
(which they are doing), means, which they will inevitably do.
This was also narrated from Mujahid, Al-Hasan and others.
Others said that this phrase وَلَهُمْ أَعْمَالٌ مِن دُونِ ذَلِكَ هُمْ لَهَا عَامِلُونَ
(And they have other deeds, besides which they are doing), means:It was decreed
that they would do evil deeds, and they will inevitably do them before they die,
so that the word of punishment may be justified against them.
A similar view was narrated from Muqatil bin Hayyan, As-Suddi and Abdur-Rahman
bin Zayd bin Aslam.
This is a clear and appropriate meaning. We have already quoted from the
Hadith of Ibn Mas`ud:
By Him besides Whom there is no other God, a man may do the deeds
of the people of Paradise until there is no more than a forearm's length between
him and it, then the decree will overtake him and he will do the deeds of the
people of Hell, then he will enter Hell...
Invoke not loudly this day!
Certainly you shall not be helped by Us.
means, no one is going to save you from what has happened to you, whether you
scream aloud or remain silent. There is no escape and no way out. It is
inevitable: the punishment will surely come to you.
refers to the arrogant pride which the Quraysh felt because they believed
themselves to be the guardians of the Ka`bah,
when in fact this was not the case.
As An-Nasa'i said in his Tafsir of this
Ayah in his Sunan:
Ahmad bin Sulayman told us that Ubaydullah told us from Isra`il, from Abdul-A`la
that he heard Sa`id bin Jubayr narrating that Ibn Abbas said,
"Talking by late night became disapproved of when this Ayah was revealed
مُسْتَكْبِرِينَ بِهِ سَامِرًا تَهْجُرُونَ
In pride, talking evil about it by night.
"They boasted about the Ka`bah and said, `We
are its people who stay up talking at night.'
They used to boast and stay up and talk at night around the
Ka`bah. They did not use it for the proper
purpose, and so in effect they had abandoned it.''
Have they not pondered over
the Word, or has there come to them what had not come to their fathers of old,
Allah denounces the idolators for not understanding the Qur'an or contemplating
its meaning, and for turning away from it, even though they had been addressed
specifically in this Book which Allah did not reveal to any Messenger more
perfect and noble, and especially since no Book or warner had come to their
forefathers who had died during the Jahiliyyah.
What these people, upon whom the blessing had been bestowed, should have done,
was to accept it and give thanks for it, and try to understand it and act in
accordance with it night and day, as was done by the wise ones among them who
became Muslim and followed the Messenger, may Allah be pleased with them.
Have they not pondered over
"Because, by Allah, if the people had pondered the meaning and understood it
properly, they would have found in the Qur'an a deterrent to disobeying Allah.
But they only paid attention to the Ayat
which are not entirely clear, and so they were destroyed because of that.''
Then Allah says, denouncing the disbelievers of the Quraysh:
Or is it that they did not
recognize their Messenger so they deny him,
means, `do they not recognize Muhammad and the honesty, trustworthiness and good
character with which he grew up among them! Can they deny that or argue against
Jafar bin Abi Talib said to An-Najashi, the king of Ethiopia:
"O King, Allah has sent to us a Messenger whose lineage, honesty and
trustworthiness are known to us.''
Al-Mughirah bin Shu`bah said something similar to the deputy of Kisra when he
wanted to challenge him.
When the Byzantine ruler Heraclius asked Abu Sufyan Sakhr bin Harb and his
companions -- who were still disbelievers and had not yet become Muslim -- about
the characteristics, lineage, honesty and trustworthiness of the Prophet, they
could only tell the truth and admit that he was indeed noble and truthful.
This is a narration of what the Quraysh said about the Prophet.
They said that he was making up the Qur'an by himself, or that he was crazy and
did not know what he was saying.
Allah tells us that their hearts did not believe that, they knew that what they
were saying about the Qur'an was falsehood, for it had come to them from the
Words of Allah and could not be resisted or rejected. So Allah challenged them
and all the people of the world to produce something like it if they could --
but they could not and would never be able to do so.
And if Al-Haqq had followed
their desires, verily, the heavens and the earth, and whosoever is therein would
have been corrupted!
Mujahid, Abu Salih and As-Suddi said, "Al-Haqq
is Allah, may He be glorified.''
What is meant by the Ayah is that if Allah
had responded to the desires in their hearts and prescribed things accordingly,
the heavens and the earth and whosoever is therein, would have been corrupted,
i.e., because of their corrupt and inconsistent desires.
Or have they a share in
the dominion! Then in that case they would not give mankind even a Naqir. (4:53)
All of this goes to show how incapable mankind is and how divergent and
inconsistent their ideas and desires are. Only Allah, may He be glorified, is
Perfect in all His attributes, words, actions, laws, power and control of His
creation, may He be exalted and sanctified. There is no God but He and no Lord
Then He says:
... بَلْ أَتَيْنَاهُم بِذِكْرِهِمْ ...
Nay, We have brought them
meaning the Qur'an,
... فَهُمْ عَن ذِكْرِهِم مُّعْرِضُونَ
but they turn away from
The Prophet does not ask for any
payment, and he calls to the straight path
And though We had mercy on
them and removed the distress which is on them, still they would obstinately
persist in their transgression, wandering blindly.
Here Allah tells of their stubbornness in their disbelief, in that even if He
had removed the calamity from them and made them understand the Qur'an, they
still would not follow it; they would still persist in their disbelief and
And if (Lauw) you could
but see when they will be held over the (Hell) Fire! They will say: "Would that
we were but sent back (to the world)! Then we would not deny the Ayat of our
Lord, and we would be of the believers!''
Nay, it has become
manifest to them what they had been concealing before. But if they were returned
(to the world), they would certainly revert to that which they were forbidden.
Until His statement: بِمَبْعُوثِينَ
(be resurrected). (6:27-29)
This has to do with the knowledge of Allah. He knows about some- thing that will
not happen, but if it were to happen, He knows how it would be.
Ad-Dahhak reported from Ibn Abbas:
"Every- thing that is implied in the word:َلَوْ
(If (Lauw)) is something that will never
Until, when We open for
them the gate of severe punishment, then lo! they will be plunged in despair.
When the command of Allah reaches them and the Hour comes to them suddenly, and
they are overtaken by the punishment of Allah which they were not expecting,
then they will despair of any ease and goodness, and all their hopes will
A reminder of the Blessings of
Allah and His immense Power
It is He Who has created
for you hearing, eyes, and hearts.
Allah mentions His blessings to His servants, in that He has given them hearing,
sight and understanding through which they come to know things and draw lessons
from them, the signs which attest to the Oneness of Allah and indicate that He
is the One Who does what He wills and chooses what He wants.
... قَلِيلًا مَّا تَشْكُرُونَ
Little thanks you give.
means, how little you thank Allah for the blessings He has given you.
And it is He Who has
created you on the earth, and to Him you shall be gathered back.
Allah tells us about His great power and overwhelming authority, for He is the
One Who originated creation and put people in all parts of the earth, with their
different nations, languages and characteristics, then on the Day of
Resurrection He will gather them all together, the first of them and the last,
at a fixed time on a day appointed, and none will be left out, young or old,
male or female, noble or insignificant, but all will be brought back as they
were originally created.
The Idolators believe in Tawhid
Ar-Rububiyyah, which requires them to believe in Tawhid Al-Uluhiyyah
Allah states that the fact that He is One and that He is independent in His
creation, control, dominion and guides one to realize that there is no God
except Him and that none should be worshipped except Him Alone, with no partner
He tells His Messenger
Muhammad to say to the idolators who worship others besides Him, even though
they admit His Lordship, that He has no partner in Lordship. But despite this
they still attributed partners in divinity to Him, and worshipped others besides
Him even though they recognized the fact that those whom they worshipped could
not create anything, did not own anything, nor do they have any control over
anything. However, they still believed that these creatures could bring them
closer to Allah,
"Who is Lord of the seven heavens, and Lord of the Great Throne!''
means, "Who is the Creator of the higher realm with its planets, lights and
angels who submit to Him in all regions and in all directions! Who is the Lord
of the Great Throne, which is the highest of all created things!''
Allah says here:
... وَرَبُّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ
Lord of the Great Throne,
meaning the Mighty Throne.
At the end of the Surah, Allah says
رَبُّ الْعَرْشِ الْكَرِيمِ
the Lord of the Supreme Throne! (23:116), meaning splendid and magnificent.
The Throne combines the features of height and vastness with splendor and
magnificence. This is why it was said that it is made of red rubies.
Ibn Mas`ud said,
"There is no night or day with your Lord, and the light of the Throne is from
the Light of His Face.''
He protects (all), while against Whom there is no protector, if you know!
Among the Arabs, if a leader announced his protection to a person, no one could
go against him in that, yet no one could offer protection against that leader.
... وَهُوَ يُجِيرُ وَلَا يُجَارُ عَلَيْهِ ...
He protects (all), while against Whom there is no protector,
meaning, He is the greatest Master, and there is none greater than Him. His is
the power to create and to command, and none can overturn or oppose His ruling.
What He wills happens, and what He does not, will not happen.
لاَ يُسْأَلُ عَمَّا يَفْعَلُ وَهُمْ يُسْـَلُونَ
He cannot be questioned
about what He does, while they will be questioned. (21:23)
He cannot be asked about what He does because of His greatness, Pride,
overwhelming power, wisdom and justice, but all of His creation will be asked
about what they did, as Allah says:
And whoever invokes,
besides Allah, any other god, of whom he has no proof; then his reckoning is
only with his Lord. Surely, the disbelievers will not be successful. (23:117)
The idolators have no evidence for what they are doing, which has led them into
lies and misguidance. Rather they are following their forefathers and
predecessors who were confused and ignorant, as Allah describes them:
No son did Allah beget, nor is there any god along with Him. (If there had been
many gods), then each god would have taken away what he had created, and some
would have tried to overcome others.
meaning, if it were decreed that there should be a plurality of deities, each of
them would have exclusive control over whatever he had created, so there would
never be any order in the universe. But what we see is that the universe is
ordered and cohesive, with the upper and lower realms connected to one another
in the most perfect fashion.
مَّا تَرَى فِى خَلْقِ الرَّحْمَـنِ مِن تَفَـوُتٍ
you can see no fault in
the creation of the Most Gracious. (67:3)
Moreover, if there were a number of gods, each of them would try to subdue the
other with enmity, and one would prevail over the other.
This has been mentioned by the scholars of
Ilm-ul-Kalam, who discussed it using the evidence of mutual resistance or
This idea states that if there were two or more creators, one would want to make
a body move while the other would want to keep it immobile, and if neither of
them could achieve what they wanted, then both would be incapable, but the One
Whose existence is essential (i.e., Allah) cannot be incapable. It is impossible
for the will of both to be fulfilled because of the conflict.
This dilemma only arises when a plurality of gods is suggested, so it is
impossible for there to be such a plurality, because if the will of one is
fulfilled and not the other, the one who prevails will be the one whose
existence is essential (i.e., God) and the one who is prevailed over will be
merely possible (i.e., he is not divine), because it is not befitting for the
one to be defeated whose existence is essential.
indeed We are able to show you that with which We have threatened them.
means, `if We willed, We could show you the punishment and test that We will
send upon them.'
Then Allah shows him the best way to behave when mixing with people, which is to
treat kindly the one who treats him badly, so as to soften his heart and turn
his enmity to friendship, and to turn his hatred to love.
Allah tells us about what
happens when death approaches one of the disbelievers or one of those who have
been negligent with the commands of Allah. He tells us what he says and how he
asks to come back to this world so that he can rectify whatever wrongs he
committed during his lifetime.
On the Day the event is
finally fulfilled, those who neglected it before will say: "Verily, the
Messengers of our Lord did come with the truth, now are there any intercessors
for us that they might intercede on our behalf Or could we be sent back so that
we might do deeds other than those deeds which we used to do.'' (7:53)
And if you only could
see when the criminals shall hang their heads before their Lord (saying): "Our
Lord! We have now seen and heard, so send us back, that we will do righteous
good deeds. Verily, we now believe with certainty.'' (32:12)
Therein they will cry:
"Our Lord! Bring us out, we shall do righteous good deeds, not what we used to
(Allah will reply:) "Did We not give you lives long enough, so that whosoever
would receive admonition could receive it And the warner came to you. So taste
you (the evil of your deeds). For the wrongdoers there is no helper.'' (35:37)
Allah says that they will ask to go back, when death approaches, on the Day of
Resurrection, when they are gathered for judgment before the Compeller (Allah)
and when they are in the agonies of the punishment of Hell, but their prayer
will not be answered.
Here Allah says:
... كَلَّا إِنَّهَا كَلِمَةٌ هُوَ قَائِلُهَا ...
It is but a word that he speaks;
The word Kalla (No!) is a word that is used
to rebuke, and the meaning is:
"No, We will not respond to what he asks for and We will not accept it from
... كَلَّا إِنَّهَا كَلِمَةٌ هُوَ قَائِلُهَا ...
is but a word that he speaks,
refers to his asking to go back so that he can do righteous deeds; this is just
talk on his part, it would not be accompanied by any action. If he were to go
back, he would not do any righteous good deeds, he is merely lying, as Allah
But if they were
returned, they would certainly revert to that which they were forbidden. And
indeed they are liars. (6:28)
"By Allah, he will not wish to go back to his family and tribe, or to accumulate
more of the things of this world or satisfy his desires, but he will wish that
he could go back to do acts of obedience to Allah. May Allah have mercy on a man
who does that which the disbeliever will wish he had done when he sees the
punishment of Hell.''
in front of them is Barzakh until the Day when they will be resurrected.
Abu Salih and others said that: وَمِن وَرَائِهِم
(and in front of them), means before them.
Mujahid said, Al-Barzakh is a barrier between
this world and the Hereafter.
Muhammad bin Ka`b said,
"Al-Barzakh is what is between this world and
the Hereafter, neither they are the people of this world, eating and drinking,
nor are they with the people of the Hereafter, being rewarded or punished for
Abu Sakhr said,
"Al-Barzakh refers to the graves. They are
neither in this world nor the Hereafter, and they will stay there until the Day
... وَمِن وَرَائِهِم بَرْزَخٌ ...
in front of them is Barzakh.
In these words is a threat to those wrongdoers at the time of death, of the
punishment of Barzakh.
This is similar to the Ayat:
مِّن وَرَآئِهِمْ جَهَنَّمُ
In front of them there
is Hell. (45:10)
وَمِن وَرَآئِهِ عَذَابٌ غَلِيظٌ
and in front of him will
be a great torment. (14: 17)
... إِلَى يَوْمِ
until the Day when they will be resurrected.
means, he will be punished continually until the Day of Resurrection, as it says
in the Hadith:
there will be no kinship among them that Day, nor will they ask of one another.
meaning that lineage will be of no avail on that Day, and a father will not ask
about his son or care about him.
وَلاَ يَسْـَلُ حَمِيمٌ حَمِيماً يُبَصَّرُونَهُمْ
And no friend will ask a
friend (about his condition), though they shall be made to see one another.
meaning, no relative will ask about another relative, even if he can see him and
even if he is carrying a heavy burden. Even if he was the dearest of people to
him in this world, he will not care about him or take even the slightest part of
his burden from him.
That Day shall a man
flee from his brother. And from his mother and his father. And from his wife and
his children. (80:34-36)
Ibn Mas`ud said,
"On the Day of Resurrection, Allah will gather the first and the last, then a
voice will call out, `Whoever is owed something by another, let him come forth
and take it.' And a man will rejoice if he is owed something or had been
mistreated by his father or child or wife, even if it is little.''
This is confirmed in the Book of Allah, where Allah says
فَإِذَا نُفِخَ فِي الصُّورِ فَلَا أَنسَابَ بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ وَلَا
يَتَسَاءلُونThen, when the Trumpet is blown, there will be no
kinship among them that Day, nor will they ask of one another.
meaning, abide therein, humiliated, despised and scorned.
... وَلَا تُكَلِّمُونِ
speak you not to Me!
means, `do not ask for this again, for I will not respond to you.
Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn Abbas concerning this
Ayah, اخْسَؤُوا فِيهَا وَلَا تُكَلِّمُونِ
"These are the words of Ar-Rahman when
Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abdullah bin `Amr said,
"The people of Hell will call on Malik for
forty years, and he will not answer them. Then he will respond and tell them
that they are to abide therein. By Allah, their cries will mean nothing to
Malik or to the Lord of
Malik. Then they will call on their Lord and
Our Lord! Our wretchedness overcame us, and we were (an) erring
people. Our Lord! Bring us out of this. If ever we return (to evil), then indeed
we shall be wrongdoers. (23:106-107)
Allah will not answer them for a time span equivalent to twice the duration of
this world. Then He will reply: اخْسَؤُوا فِيهَا وَلَا تُكَلِّمُونِ
(Remain you in it with ignominy! And speak you not to Me!)
By Allah, the people will not utter a single word after that, and they will
merely be in the Fire of Hell, sighing in a high and low tone. Their voices are
likened to those of donkeys, which start in a high tone and end in a low tone.''
Then Allah will remind them of their sins in this world and how they used to
make fun of His believing servants and close friends:
Allah tells them how much
they wasted in their short lives in this world by failing to obey Allah and
worship Him Alone. If they had been patient during their short stay in this
world, they would have attained victory just like His pious close friends.
meaning, it was only a short time, no matter how you look at it.
... لَّوْ أَنَّكُمْ كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
you had only known!
means, you would not have preferred the transient to the eternal, and treated
yourself in this bad way, and earned the wrath of Allah in this short period. If
you had patiently obeyed Allah and worshipped Him as the believers did, you
would have attained victory just as they did.
is the Worst form of Wrong, its Practitioner shall never succeed. Allah
threatens those who associate anything else with Him and worship anything with
Him. He informs that those who associate others with Allah:
My Lord! Forgive and
have mercy, for You are the best of those who show mercy!
Here Allah is teaching us to recite this supplication, for forgiveness, in a
general sense, means wiping away sins and concealing them from people, and mercy
means guiding a person and helping him to say and do good things.