All the praises and
thanks be to Allah, Who has sent down to His servant the Book, and has not
placed therein any crookedness. (He has made it) straight to give warning of a
severe punishment from Him, and to give glad tidings to the believers, who do
righteous deeds... (18:1-2)
Here Allah says: تَبَارَكَ
Blessed be He. The verbal form used here implies an ongoing, permanent, eternal
الَّذِي نَزَّلَ الْفُرْقَانَ
(Who sent down the criterion), The verb Nazzala
is a form which implies something done a great deal and often. This is like the
And the Book which He (Nazzala)
sent down to His Messenger, and the Scripture which He (Anzala) sent down to
those before (him). (4:136)
Each of the previous Books was sent down at one time, but the Qur'an was
revealed gradually, in stages, Ayat after
Ayat, rulings after rulings,
Surahs. This is more eloquent and indicative of greater care for the one
to whom it is revealed, as Allah says later in this
And those who disbelieve
say: "Why is not the Qur'an revealed to him all at once!'' Thus, that We may
strengthen your heart thereby. And We have revealed it to you gradually, in
stages. And no example or similitude do they bring, but We reveal to you the
truth, and the better explanation thereof. (25:32-33)
This Surah was named
Al-Furqan, because it is the criterion that
decides between truth and falsehood, guidance and misguidance, right and wrong,
lawful and unlawful.
(to His servant), This description is one of praise and commendation, because
here Allah is connecting him to Himself, describing him as His servant.
Allah also described him in this manner when referring to the noblest of events,
the Night of the Isra', as He said:
سُبْحَانَ الَّذِى أَسْرَى بِعَبْدِهِ لَيْلاً
Glorified be He Who took
His servant for a journey by night. (17:1)
Allah also described him in this way when He described how he stood and called
And when the servant of
Allah stood up invoking Him in prayer they (the Jinn) just made round him a
dense crowd as if sticking one over the other (in order to listen to the
Prophet's recitation). (72:19)
This description is also used here when Allah describes how the Book is revealed
to him and how the angel comes down to him:
تَبَارَكَ الَّذِي نَزَّلَ الْفُرْقَانَ عَلَى عَبْدِهِ لِيَكُونَ لِلْعَالَمِينَ
Blessed be He Who sent down the criterion to His servant that he may be a warner
to all nations.
لِيَكُونَ لِلْعَالَمِينَ نَذِيرًا
(that he may be a warner to all nations) means, he alone has been blessed with
this great, detailed, clear Book which,
Falsehood cannot come to
it from before it or behind it, (it is) sent down by the All-Wise, Worthy of all
praise (Allah). (41:42)
The One Who made it the mighty criterion, singled him out to convey it to those
who seek the shade of trees and to those who live on the land (i.e., to all of
mankind, nomad and settled alike), as the Prophet said:
Yet they have taken besides Him other gods who created nothing
but are themselves created, and possess neither harm nor benefit for
themselves, and possess no power (of causing) death, nor (of giving)
life, nor of raising the dead.
Yet they have taken besides
Him other gods who created nothing but are themselves created, and possess
neither harm nor benefit for themselves,
Allah tells us of the ignorance of the idolators in taking other gods instead of
Allah, the Creator of all things, the One Who controls the affairs of all
things; whatever He wills happens and whatever He does not will does not happen.
In spite of that, they still worshipped others besides Him, idols who could not
even create the wing of a gnat, but were themselves created. They could neither
do harm nor bring benefit to themselves, so how could they do anything for their
and they are dictated to
him, morning and afternoon
means, they are read or recited to him. at the beginning and end of the day.
Because this idea is so foolish and is so patently false, everyone knows that it
is not true. It is known through Mutawatir
reports and is a common fact that Muhammad the Messenger of Allah never learned
to read or write, either at the beginning or the end of his life. He grew up
among them for approximately forty years, from the time he was born until the
time when his mission began. They knew all about him, and about his honest and
sound character and how he would never lie or do anything immoral or bad. They
even used to call him Al-Amin (the
Trustworthy One) from a young age, until his mission began, because they saw how
truthful and honest he was. When Allah honored him with that which He honored
him, they declared their enmity towards him and came up with all these
accusations which any reasonable person would know he was innocent of. They were
not sure what to accuse him of.
Sometimes they said that he was a sorcerer, at other times they would say he was
a poet, or crazy, or a liar. So Allah said:
Say: "It has been sent down
by Him Who knows the secret of the heavens and the earth.''
meaning, He has revealed the Qur'an which includes true information about the
earlier and later generations, information which concurs with the realities of
the past and future.
الَّذِي يَعْلَمُ السِّرَّ
(Who knows the secret),
means, Allah is the One Who knows the unseen in the heavens and on the earth; He
knows their secrets just as He knows what is visible therein.
... إِنَّهُ كَانَ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا
Truly, He is Oft-Forgiving,
This is an invitation to them to repent and turn back to Allah, telling them
that His mercy is vast and His patience is immense. Whoever repents to Him, He
accepts his repentance. Despite all their lies, immorality, falsehood, disbelief
and stubbornness, and saying what they said about the Messenger and the Qur'an,
He still invites them to repent and give up their sin, and to come to Islam and
true guidance. This is like the Ayat:
Verily, those who put
into trial the believing men and believing women, and then do not turn in
repentance, then they will have the torment of Hell, and they will have the
punishment of the burning Fire. (85:10)
Al-Hasan Al-Basri said:
"Look at this kindness and
generosity! They killed His friends and He is calling them to repentance and
See how they coin
similitudes for you, so they have gone astray,
meaning, they accused you and belied you when they said that you were a sorcerer
or bewitched or crazy or a liar or a poet, but all of these are false ideas.
Everyone who has the slightest understanding will recognize that they are lying.
... فَضَلُّوا ...
so they have gone astray,
from the path of guidance.
... فَلَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ سَبِيلًا
and they cannot find a
Everyone who steps outside of the way of truth and guidance has gone astray, no
matter what direction he takes, because the truth is one and its methodology is
unified, parts of it confirming other parts.
Then Allah tells His Prophet that if He willed, He could bestow on him in this
world something far better than what they were saying. He said:
When they are cast
therein, they will hear the (terrible) drawing in of its breath as it blazes
forth. It almost bursts up with fury. (67:7-8),
which means that parts of it almost separate from other parts because of its
intense hatred towards those who disbelieved in Allah.
Imam Abu Jafar bin Jarir narrated that Ibn Abbas said:
"A man will be dragged towards Hell, which will be expanding and contracting,
and Ar-Rahman will say to it: `What is the
matter with you!'
It will say: `He is seeking refuge from me.'
So Allah will say, `Let My servant go.'
Another man will be dragged towards Hell and he will say, `O Lord, I never
expected this from You.'
Allah will say, `What did you expect!'
The man will say, `I expected that Your mercy would be great enough to include
So Allah will say, `Let My servant go.'
Another man will be dragged towards Hell, and Hell will bray at him like a
donkey braying at barley. Then it will give a moan that will instill fear in
Its chain of narrators is Sahih.
... سَمِعُوا لَهَا تَغَيُّظًا وَزَفِيرًا
they will hear its raging
and its roaring.
Abdur-Razzaq recorded that Ubayd bin Umayr said:
"Hell will utter a moan such that there will be no angel who is close to Allah
and no Prophet sent to mankind, but he will fall on his face, shaking all over.
Even Ibrahim, peace be upon him, will fall to his knees and say: `O Lord, I do
not ask You for salvation this Day except for myself.''
Say: "Is that better or the
Paradise of Eternity which is promised to those who have Taqwa!''
It will be theirs as a
reward and final destination.
Here Allah says: `O Muhammad, this that We have described to you about the state
of those who are doomed, who will be dragged on their faces to Hell, which will
receive them with a scowling face, with hatred and moans. There they will be
thrown into their constricted spaces, tied up to their shoulders, unable to move
or call for help, and unable to escape their plight --- is this better, or the
eternal Paradise which Allah has promised to the pious among His servants, which
He has prepared for them as a reward and ultimate destiny in return for their
obedience to Him in this world!'
For them there will be
therein all that they desire,
of delights such as food, drink, clothing, dwellings, means of transportation
and scenery, and other things that no eye has seen, no ear has heard, nor the
heart of anyone can comprehend.
... خَالِدِينَ ...
and they will abide
They will abide therein forever; it will never cease or come to an end, and they
will never leave it.
This is what Allah has promised to those whom He has blessed and to whom He has
shown His favor. He says:
... كَانَ عَلَى رَبِّكَ وَعْدًا مَسْؤُولًا ﴿١٦﴾
It is a upon your Lord a
meaning, it must inevitably come to pass.
Abu Jafar bin Jarir reported from some of the scholars of the Arabic language
that the words وَعْدًا مَسْؤُولًا
(Wa`dan Mas'ula), mean: a binding pledge.
In this Surah Allah mentions Hell, then refers to the situation of the people of
Paradise. This is similar to the passage in Surah
As-Saffat where Allah mentions the status of the people of Paradise, with
its beauty and joy, then He says:
Is that better
entertainment or the tree of Zaqqum! Truly, We have made it a trial for the
wrongdoers. Verily, it is a tree that springs out of the bottom of Hellfire, The
shoots of its fruit stalks are like the heads of Shayatin.
Truly, they will eat
thereof and fill their bellies therewith. Then on the top of that they will be
given boiling water to drink so that it becomes a mixture. Then thereafter,
verily, their return is to the flaming fire of Hell.
Verily, they found their
fathers on the wrong path. So they hastened in their footsteps! (37:62-70)
And when Allah will say:
"O `Isa, son of Maryam! Did you say unto men: `Worship me and my mother as two
gods besides Allah!'''
He will say: "Glory be
to You! It was not for me to say what I had no right (to say). Had I said such a
thing, You would surely have known it. You know what is in my inner self though
I do not know what is in Yours; truly, You, only You, are the All-Knower of all
that is hidden. Never did I say to them aught except what You did command me to
... أَمْ هُمْ ضَلُّوا السَّبِيلَ
...or did they stray from
Describing how those who were worshipped will respond on the Day of
They will say: "Glorified
be You! It was not for us to take (Nattakhidh) any Awliya' besides You...''
Most of the scholars recite a Fathah on the
Nun of the word
Nattakhidh in His saying: أَن نَّتَّخِذَ مِن دُونِكَ مِنْ أَوْلِيَاء
meaning, `it is not right for any created being, neither us nor them, to worship
anyone except You; we did not call them to do that, but they did it of their own
accord, without us telling them to do it or accepting what they did. We are
innocent of them and their worship.'
And (remember) the Day
when He will gather them all together, then He will say to the angels: "Was it
you that these people used to worship'' They (the angels) will say: "Glorified
be You!'' (34:40-41)
Other scholars understand this phrase to mean: `it is not proper for us to take
anyone except You as protectors or helpers (Awliya'),'
meaning, `it is not proper for anyone to worship us, for we are Your servants
and in need of You.'
This meaning is close to the first.
... وَلَكِن مَّتَّعْتَهُمْ وَآبَاءهُمْ ...
but You gave them and their
means, `You made such a long period of time pass that they forgot the Reminder,
i.e., they forgot what had been sent down to them through the Messengers,
calling them to worship You alone with no partner or associate.'
... حَتَّى نَسُوا الذِّكْرَ ...
till they forgot the
... وَكَانُوا قَوْمًا بُورًا
and became a lost people.
Ibn Abbas said, "This means, they were destroyed.''
Al-Hasan Al-Basri and Malik narrated from Az-Zuhri: "There was no good in
And who is more astray
than one who calls on besides Allah, such as will not answer him till the Day of
Resurrection, and who are unaware of their calls to them. And when mankinds are
gathered, they will become their enemies and will deny their worshipping.
And We never sent before
you any of the Messengers but verily, they ate food and walked in the markets.
Allah tells us about the previous Messengers He sent: they all used to eat food
needing the nourishment in it. They used to go around in the marketplaces
seeking to engage in trade and earn a livelihood. This should not, however,
affect their status as Messengers, for Allah gave them good characteristics and
caused them to speak fine words and do noble deeds, and gave them miracles and
clear proofs, from which any person with sound insight may see the confirmation
that what they brought from Allah was true.
On the Day they will see
the angels -- no good news will there be for the criminals that day. And they
will say: "Hijran Mahjura.''
means, when they do see the angels, it will not be a good day for them, for on
that day there will be no good news for them.
This is also confirmed at the time when they are dying, when the angels bring
them the tidings of Hell and the wrath of the Compeller, and when the
disbeliever's soul is being taken out, the angels say to it,
"Come out, O evil soul from an evil body, come out to fierce hot wind and
boiling water, and the shadow of black smoke.''
It refuses to come out and it scatters throughout his body, so they beat him, as
(saying): "Deliver your
souls! This day you shall be recompensed with the torment of degradation because
of what you used to utter against Allah other than the truth. And you used to
reject His Ayat with disrespect!'' (6: 93)
Verily, those who say:
"Our Lord is Allah,'' and then they stand firm, on them the angels will descend
(saying): "Fear not, nor grieve! But receive the good news of Paradise which you
have been promised!
We have been your
friends in the life of this world and are (so) in the Hereafter. Therein you
shall have what your souls desire, and therein you shall have what you ask for.
Entertainment from, the
Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.'' (41:30-32)
According to an authentic Hadith narrated from Al-Bara' bin Azib, the angels say
to the believer's soul (at the time of death):
"Come out, O good soul in a good body, as you were dwelling in it. Come out to
rest and pleasant fragrances and a Lord Who is not angry.''
Other scholars said that the Ayah:
يَوْمَ يَرَوْنَ الْمَلَائِكَةَ لَا بُشْرَى
(On the Day they will see the angels -- no good news), refers to the Day of
This was the view of Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak and others.
But there is no contradiction between these two views, because on both of these
days -- the day of death and the Day of Resurrection -- the angels will appear
to the believers and disbelievers, and they will give glad tidings of divine
mercy and pleasure to the believers, while they will give the disbelievers news
that will bring regret and sorrow, so there will be no glad tidings for the
evildoers and criminals on that Day.
... وَيَقُولُونَ حِجْرًا مَّحْجُورًا
And they (angels) will say:
The angels will say to the disbelievers: `success is forbidden to you this day.'
The basic meaning of Al-Hijr is preventing or
prohibition, hence the word is used in the phrase "HajaraAl-Qadi `Ala Fulan'' (or, "The judge
prohibited so and so.'') when he forbids him to dispose of his wealth in cases
of bankruptcy, folly, being underage, etc.
The name of Al-Hijr (the low semicircular
wall near the Ka`bah) is also derived from
this root, because it prevents people from Tawaf
inside it, since they have to go behind it.
The mind is also called Al-Hijr, because it
prevents a person from indulging in things that do not befit him.
In conclusion, the pronoun in the phrase
(And they will say), refers to the angels.
This was the view of Mujahid, Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, Atiyyah
Al-`Awfi, Ata' Al-Khurasani, Khusayf and others; it was also the view favored by
Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn Jurayj said that, this referred to the words of the
On the Day they will see
means, they will seek refuge from the angels.
This is because when disaster and hardship struck, the Arabs would say: حِجْرًا مَّحْجُورًا
Although there is a point to what Ibn Jurayj said, from the context it is
unlikely that this is what was meant, and the majority of scholars said
This refers to the Day of Resurrection, when Allah will bring mankind to account
for their deeds, good and bad alike.
Allah tells us that the deeds which these idolators thought would bring them
salvation will be of no avail to them, because they were not in accordance with
the Shariah or Laws of Allah, whether in
terms of sincere intention or in terms of following the Laws set out by Allah.
Every deed that is neither sincere nor in accordance with the Laws of Allah is
futile, and the deeds of the disbelievers are either one or the other, or they
may include both, in which case they are even less likely to be accepted.
And We shall turn to
whatever deeds they did, and We shall make such deeds as scattered floating
particles of dust.
Sufyan Ath-Thawri, narrated from Abu Ishaq, from Al-Harith that Ali, may Allah
be pleased with him, commented on Allah's saying:
فَجَعَلْنَاهُ هَبَاء مَّنثُورًا and We shall make such deeds as
scattered floating particles of dust (Haba').
"The rays of the sun when they pass through a small aperture.''
A similar view was also narrated through a different chain of narrators from
Ali, and something similar was also narrated from Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Ikrimah,
Sa`id bin Jubayr, As-Suddi, Ad-Dahhak and others.
Al-Hasan Al-Basri said,
"This refers to the rays coming through a small window, and if anyone tries to
grasp them, he cannot.''
Abu Al-Ahwas narrated from Abu Ishaq from Al-Harith that Ali said:
"Haba' refers to the dust raised by
A similar view was also narrated from Ibn Abbas and Ad-Dahhak, and this was also
said by Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam.
(scattered floating particles of dust (Haba')).
"Have you not seen dry trees when they are blown by the wind? This refers to
It was narrated that Ya`la bin Ubayd said:
"Ashes or dust when it is stirred up by the wind.''
In conclusion, all of these views are pointing out that the deeds of the
disbelievers will be like some worthless scattered thing, and will be of no
avail to them whatsoever.
who believe! Do not render in vain your Sadaqah (charity) by reminders of your
generosity or by injury, like him who spends his wealth to be seen of men, and
he does not believe in Allah, nor in the Last Day. His likeness is the likeness
of a smooth rock on which is a little dust; on it falls heavy rain which leaves
it bare. They are not able to do anything with what they have earned. (2:264)
Abiding therein --
excellent it is as an abode, and as a place to rest in. (25:76)
The people of Hell will go down to the lowest levels and continual regret, with
all kinds of punishments and torments.
إِنَّهَا سَآءَتْ مُسْتَقَرّاً وَمُقَاماً
Evil indeed it (Hell) is
as an abode and as a place to rest in. (25:66)
means, how evil a dwelling place to look at, and how evil an abode in which to
Allah says: أَصْحَابُ الْجَنَّةِ يَوْمَئِذٍ خَيْرٌ مُّسْتَقَرًّا وَأَحْسَنُ
meaning, in return for what they have done of acceptable deeds, they will attain
what they will attain and reach the status they will reach, in contrast to the
people of Hell, who will not have even one deed to their credit that would
qualify them to enter Paradise and be saved from the Fire.
Allah points out the situation of the blessed in contrast to that of the doomed,
who will not enjoy any goodness at all.
Sa`id bin Jubayr said:
"Allah will finish the Judgement halfway through the Day, and the people of
Paradise will take their mid day rest in Paradise and the people of Hell in
Hell. Allah says: أَصْحَابُ الْجَنَّةِ يَوْمَئِذٍ خَيْرٌ مُّسْتَقَرًّا وَأَحْسَنُ
(The dwellers of Paradise will, on that Day, have the best abode, and have the
fairest of places for repose)."
"I know the time when the
people of Paradise will enter Paradise and the people of Hell will enter Hell.
It is the time which in this world is the time when the late forenoon starts and
people go back to their families to take a siesta. The people of Hell will go to
Hell, but the people of Paradise will be taken to Paradise and will have their
siesta in Paradise, and they will be fed the liver of a whale and they will all
eat their fill. This is what Allah says:
أَصْحَابُ الْجَنَّةِ يَوْمَئِذٍ خَيْرٌ مُّسْتَقَرًّا وَأَحْسَنُ مَقِيلًا
And (remember) the Day when
the heaven shall be rent asunder with clouds, and the angels will be sent down,
with a grand descending.
Here Allah tells us about the terror of the Day of Resurrection and the
tremendous events that will happen, including the splitting of heavens when they
are pierced by the clouds, that is the shadow of the magnificent light which
dazzles all sight.
The angels of heaven will come down on that Day and surround all creatures at
the place of gathering, then the Lord, may He be blessed and exalted, will come
to pass judgement.
And (remember) the Day when
the wrongdoer will bite at his hands, he will say: "Oh! Would that I had taken a
path with the Messenger.''
Here Allah tells us of the regret felt by the wrongdoer who rejected the path of
the Messenger and what he brought from Allah of clear truth concerning which
there is no doubt, and followed another path. When the Day of Resurrection
comes, he will feel regret but his regret will avail him nothing, and he will
bite on his hands in sorrow and grief.
Whether this Ayah was revealed concerning
Uqbah bin Abi Mu`it or someone else among the doomed, it applies to every
wrongdoer, as Allah says:
يَوْمَ تُقَلَّبُ وُجُوهُهُمْ فِى النَّارِ
On the Day when their
faces will be turned over in the Fire, (33:66)
As mentioned in those two Ayat every
wrongdoer will feel the ultimate regret on the Day of Resurrection, and will
bite at his hands, saying:
Ah! Woe to me! Would that I
had never taken so-and-so as an intimate friend!
meaning, the one among the propagators of misguidance who diverted him from true
guidance and led him to follow the path of misguidance, whether this refers to
Umayyah bin Khalaf or his brother Ubayy bin Khalaf, or to someone else.
And those who disbelieve
say: "Listen not to this Qur'an, and make noise in the midst of it.'' (41:26)
When he would recite Qur'an to them, they would talk nonsense or speak about
something else, so that they would not hear it.
This is a form of forsaking it and rejecting it, and not believing in it is the
same as forsaking it, and not pondering its meanings and trying to understand it
is the same as forsaking it, and not acting upon it and following its
commandments and heeding its prohibitions is the same as forsaking it, and
turning away from it in favor of poetry or other words or songs or idle talk or
some other way is the same as forsaking it.
We ask Allah, the Most Generous, the Bestower of bounty, the One Who is able to
do what He wills, to keep us safe from doing that which earns His wrath and to
use us to do that which will earn His pleasure of preserving and understanding
His Book, following its commandments night and day in the manner which He loves
and which pleases Him, for He is Generous and Kind.
Thus have We made for every
Prophet an enemy among the criminals.
means, `just as there is for you, O Muhammad, those people who scorned the
Qur'an, so in all the previous nations did Allah make for every Prophet an enemy
among the criminals, who called people to their misguidance and disbelief,' as
And so We have appointed
for every Prophet enemies -- Shayatin among mankind and Jinn, (6:112),
as stated in these two Ayat.
Allah says here:
... وَكَفَى بِرَبِّكَ هَادِيًا وَنَصِيرًا ﴿٣١﴾
But sufficient is your Lord
as a Guide and Helper.
meaning, for the one who follows His Messenger and believes in His Book, Allah
will be his Guide and Helper in this world and the Hereafter.
(a Guide and Helper), because the idolators used to try to prevent people from
following the Qur'an lest anyone be guided by it. They wanted their way to
prevail over the way of the Qur'an. Allah says:
وَكَذَلِكَ جَعَلْنَا لِكُلِّ نَبِيٍّ عَدُوًّا مِّنَ الْمُجْرِمِينَ
Thus have We made for every Prophet an enemy among the criminals.
"Why is not the Qur'an
revealed to him all at once!''
meaning, why was this Qur'an, which was revealed to him, not sent down all at
one time, as the previous Books, the Tawrah, Injil,
Zabur and other Divine Books.
Allah answered them, telling them that it was revealed in stages over
twenty-three years, according to events and circumstances, and whatever rulings
were needed, in order to strengthen the hearts of the believers, as He says:
And (it is) a Qur'an
which We have divided (into parts)... (17:106)
And We said: "Go you both
to the people who have denied Our Ayat.''
Then We destroyed them with
Allah threatens the idolators who denied and opposed His Messenger Muhammad and
He warns them of the punishment and painful torment He sent upon the previous
nations who rejected their Messengers.
Allah begins by mentioning Musa, upon him be peace, whom He sent along with his
brother Harun as a helper -- i.e., as another Prophet who helped and supported
him -- but Fir`awn and his chiefs denied them both:
Allah destroyed them
completely, and similar (awaits) the disbelievers. (47:10)
And when the people of Nuh denied him, Allah destroyed them likewise, for
whoever denies one Messenger denies all the Messengers, because there is no
difference between one Messenger and another. If it had so happened that Allah
had sent all His Messengers to them, they would have denied them all.
And Nuh's people, when they
denied the Messengers,
although Allah sent only Nuh to them, and he stayed among them for 950 years,
calling them to Allah and warning them of His punishment,
وَمَا آمَنَ مَعَهُ إِلاَّ قَلِيلٌ
(And none believed with him, except a few. (11:40)
For this reason Allah أَغْرَقْنَاهُمْ drowned them all and left
no one among the sons of Adam alive on earth apart from those who boarded the
Verily, when the water
rose beyond its limits, We carried you in the boat. That We might make it a
remembrance for you, and the keen ear may understand it. (69:11-12)
which means: `We left for you ships that you ride upon to travel across the
depths of the seas, so that you may remember the blessing of Allah towards you
when He saved you from drowning, and made you the descendants of those who
believed in Allah and followed His commandments.'
Then, after them, We
created other generations (Qurun). (23:42)
Some defined a generation as being 120 years, or it was said that a generation
was one hundred years, or eighty, or forty, etc. The most correct view is that a
generation refers to nations who are one another's contemporaries, living at the
same time. When they go and others succeed them, this is another generation, as
it was recorded in the Two Sahihs:
And indeed they have passed
by the town on which was rained the evil rain.
refers to the town of the people of Lut, which was called Sodom, and the way in
which Allah dealt with it, when He destroyed it by turning it upside down and by
sending upon it the rain of stones of baked clay, as Allah says:
And when the
disbelievers see you, they take you not except for mockery, (21:36)
which means that they tried to find faults and shortcomings in him. Here Allah
وَإِذَا رَأَوْكَ إِن يَتَّخِذُونَكَ إِلَّا هُزُوًا أَهَذَا الَّذِي بَعَثَ
اللَّهُ رَسُولًا And when they see you, they treat
you only in mockery (saying): "Is this the one whom Allah has sent as a
Messenger!'' i.e., they said this by way of belittling and trying to undermine
him, so Allah put them in their place, and said:
وَلَقَدِ اسْتُهْزِىءَ بِرُسُلٍ مِّن قَبْلِكَ
And indeed Messengers
before you were mocked at. (6:10)
Or do you think that most
of them hear or understand!They are only like cattle -- nay, they are even
farther astray from the path.
meaning, they are worse
than grazing cattle. Cattle only do what they were created to do, but these
people were created to worship Allah Alone without associating partners with
Him, but they worship others with Him, even though evidence has been established
against them and Messengers have been sent to them.
it is He Who makes the night a covering for you,
It covers and conceals all things. This is like the
وَالَّيْلِ إِذَا يَغْشَى
By the night as it
the sleep a repose,
means, a halt to movement so that bodies may rest. For the faculties and limbs
get tired from their constant movement during the day when one goes out to earn
a living. When night comes, and it becomes quiet, they stop moving, and rest; so
sleep provides a rejuvenation for both the body and the soul.
... وَجَعَلَ النَّهَارَ نُشُورًا
makes the day Nushur.
meaning, people get up and go out to earn a living and attend to their business.
it is He Who sends the winds as heralds of glad tidings, going before His mercy;
Allah sends the winds as heralds of glad tidings, i.e., they bring the clouds
The winds are of many different types, depending on the purpose for which they
are sent. Some of them form the clouds, others carry the clouds or drive them,
and others come ahead of the clouds as heralds announcing their coming. Some of
them come before that to stir up the earth, and some of them fertilize or
"seed'' the clouds to make it rain.
means, a land that waited a long time for rain. It is devoid of vegetation or
anything at all. When the rain comes to it, it becomes alive and its hills are
covered with all kinds of colorful flowers, as Allah says:
indeed We have distributed it among them in order that they may remember,
means, `We cause rain to fall on this land and not on that, and We cause the
clouds to pass over one land and go to another, where We cause sufficient rain
to fall so that its people have plenty, but not one drop falls on the first
There is a reason and great wisdom behind this.
Ibn Abbas and Ibn Mas`ud, may Allah be pleased with them said:
"One year does not have more rain than another, but Allah distributes the rain
as He wills. Then he recited this Ayah:
وَلَقَدْ صَرَّفْنَاهُ بَيْنَهُمْ لِيَذَّكَّرُوا فَأَبَى أَكْثَرُ النَّاسِ إِلَّا
And indeed We have distributed it (rain or water) amongst them in order that
they may remember the grace of Allah, but most men refuse (out of)
meaning, so that they may be reminded, when Allah brings the dead earth back to
life, that He is able to bring the dead and dry bones back to life, or that
those from whom rain is withheld are suffering this because of some sin they
have committed, so that they may give it up.
morning some of My servants became believers in Me, and some became
disbelievers. As for the one who said, `We have been given rain by the mercy and
grace of Allah,' he is a believer in Me and a disbeliever in the stars. As for
the one who said, `We have been given rain by such and such a star,' he is a
disbeliever in Me and a believer in the stars.''
it is He Who has let free the two seas, this is palatable and sweet, and that is
salty and bitter;
means, He has created the two kinds of water, sweet and salty. The sweet water
is like that in rivers, springs and wells, which is fresh, sweet, palatable
This was the view of Ibn Jurayj and of Ibn Jarir, and this is the meaning
without a doubt, for nowhere in creation is there a sea which is fresh and
Allah has told us about reality so that His servants may realize His blessings
to them and give thanks to Him. The sweet water is that which flows amidst
people. Allah has portioned it out among His creatures according to their needs;
rivers and springs in every land, according to what they need for themselves and
... وَهَذَا مِلْحٌ أُجَاجٌ ...
that is salty and bitter;
meaning that it is salty, bitter and not easy to swallow.
This is like the seas that are known in the east and the west, the Atlantic
Ocean and the Straits that lead to it, the Red Sea, the Arabian Sea, the Persian
Gulf, the China Sea, the Indian Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea and
so on, all the seas that are stable and do not flow, but they swell and surge in
the winter and when the winds are strong, and they have tides that ebb and flow.
At the beginning of each month the tides ebb and flood, and when the month
starts to wane they retreat until they go back to where they started. When the
crescent of the following month appears, the tide begins to ebb again until the
fourteenth of the month, then it decreases.
Allah, may He be glorified, the One Whose power is absolute, has set these laws
in motion, so all of these seas are stationary, and He has made their water
salty lest the air turn putrid because of them and the whole earth turn rotten
as a result, and lest the earth spoil because of the animals dying on it.
Because its water is salty, its air is healthy and its dead are good (to eat),
hence when the Messenger of Allah was asked whether sea water can be used for
Wudu', he said:
الطَّهُورُ مَاؤُهُ، الْحِلُّ مَيْتَتُه
Its water is pure and its dead are lawful.
was recorded by Malik, Ash-Shafi`i and Ahmad, and by the scholars of Sunan with
a good (Jayyid) chain of narration.
Is not He Who has made
the earth as a fixed abode, and has placed rivers in its midst, and placed firm
mountains therein, and set a barrier between the two seas! Is there any god with
Allah! Nay, but most of them know not! (27:61)
they worship besides Allah, that which can neither profit them nor harm them;
Allah tells us how ignorant the idolators are; instead of worshipping Allah,
they worship idols which do not possess the power either to harm or benefit.
They do this with no evidence or proof; the only thing that led them to do this
was their own whims and desires. So they take these idols as protectors and
fight for their sake, and they oppose Allah and His Messenger and the believers
for their sake.
And they have taken
besides Allah gods, hoping that they might be helped. They cannot help them, but
they will be brought forward as a troop against those who worshipped them.
meaning, the gods which they worshipped instead of Allah cannot help them. These
ignorant people are troops for the idols and are ready to fight for their sake
and protect their sanctuaries, but in the end the victory will be for Allah and
His Messenger and the believers, in this world and the Hereafter.
... وَكَانَ الْكَافِرُ عَلَى رَبِّهِ ظَهِيرًا
the disbeliever is ever a helper against his Lord.
Mujahid said: "He supports and helps the Shaytan
in disobedience towards Allah."
We have sent you only as a bearer of good news and a warner.
meaning, a bringer of good news to the believers, a warner to the disbelievers;
bringing good news of Paradise to those who obey Allah, and bringing warnings of
a dreadful punishment for those who go against the commandments of Allah.
put your trust in the Ever Living One Who dies not,
meaning, in all your affairs, put your trust in Allah, the Ever-Living Who never
dies, the One Who الْأَوَّلُ وَالْآخِرُ وَالظَّاهِرُ وَالْبَاطِنُ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ
(is the First and the Last, the Most High and the Most Near. And He is the
All-Knower of everything. (57:3)
The Eternal, Ever-Lasting, Ever-Living, Self-Sufficient One, the Lord and
Sovereign of all things, the One to Whom you should always turn.
Allah is the One in Whom you should put your trust and to Whom you should turn
for refuge, He will be sufficient for you and will be your helper and supporter,
and will cause you to prevail. As Allah says:
means, He is the Ever-Living Who never dies, He is the Creator, Sustainer and
Sovereign of all things, Who by His might and power created the seven heavens
with their vast height and width, and the seven earths with their great depths
He rose over (Istawa) the Throne. The Most Gracious! Ask Him, as He is the
meaning, find out about Him from one who knows most about Him, and follow him
and take him as your example. It is known that there is no one who knows more
about Allah than His servant and Messenger Muhammad, the absolute leader of the
sons of Adam in this world and the Hereafter, who does not speak of his own
desire, but conveys revelation revealed to him. What he says is true, and he is
the leader whose decision counts; when there is a dispute, people are obliged to
refer to him, and whatever is in accordance with his words and deeds is right,
and whatever goes against them should be rejected no matter who says or does it.
فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِى شَىْءٍ
(And) if you differ in
anything among yourselves... (4:59)
when it is said to them: "Prostrate yourselves to Ar-Rahman!''
say: "And what is Ar-Rahman!''
meaning: we do not know Ar-Rahman. They did
not like to call Allah by His Name Ar-Rahman
(the Most Gracious), as they objected on the day of (the treaty of) Al-Hudaybiyyah,
when the Prophet told the scribe:
اكْتُبْ بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيم
Write: "In the Name of Allah, Ar-Rahman (the
Most Gracious), Ar-Rahim (the Most
They said, "We do not know Ar-Rahman or
Ar-Rahim. Write what you used to write: `Bismika
Allahumma (in Your Name, O Allah).'''
Say: "Invoke Allah or
invoke Ar-Rahman, by whatever name you invoke Him (it is the same), for to Him
belong the Best Names. (17:110)
meaning, He is Allah and He is the Most Gracious.
And in this Ayah, Allah said:
وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمُ اسْجُدُوا لِلرَّحْمَنِ قَالُوا وَمَا الرَّحْمَنُ
And when it is said to them: "Prostrate yourselves to
Ar-Rahman!'' They say: "And what is the
meaning: we do not know or approve of this Name.
... أَنَسْجُدُ لِمَا تَأْمُرُنَا ...
Shall we fall down in prostration to that which you command us!
means, "Just because you tell us to!''
... وَزَادَهُمْ نُفُورًا
it increases in them only aversion.
As for the believers, they worship Allah Who is the Most Gracious, Most
Merciful, and they attribute divinity to Him Alone and prostrate to Him.
The scholars, agree that it is allowed and approved for the reader and the
listener to prostrate when he reaches this mention of prostration in Surah
Al-Furqan, and Allah knows best.
such who desires to remember or desires to show his gratitude.
means, He has caused them both to follow one another to show the times when His
servants should worship Him. So whoever misses an act of worship during the
night can make it up during the day, and whoever misses an act of worship during
the day can make it up during the night.
meaning that they walk with dignity and humility, not with arrogance and pride.
This is like the Ayah:
وَلاَ تَمْشِ فِى الاٌّرْضِ مَرَحًا
And walk not on the
earth with conceit and arrogance... (17:37)
So these people do not walk with conceit or arrogance or pride. This does not
mean that they should walk like sick people, making a show of their humility,
for the leader of the sons of Adam (the Prophet) used to walk as if he was
coming downhill, and as if the earth were folded up beneath him.
What is meant here by Hawn is serenity and
dignity, as the Messenger of Allah said:
those who say: "Our Lord! Avert from us the torment of Hell. Verily, its torment
is ever an inseparable punishment.''
meaning, ever-present and never ending.
Al-Hasan said concerning the Ayah, إِنَّ عَذَابَهَا كَانَ غَرَامًا
(Verily, its torment is ever an inseparable, permanent punishment), Everything
that strikes the son of Adam, then disappears, does not constitute an
inseparable, permanent punishment. The inseparable, permanent punishment is that
which lasts as long as heaven and earth.
those who, when they spend, are neither extravagant nor stingy...
They are not extravagant, spending more than they need, nor are they miserly
towards their families, not spending enough on their needs. But they follow the
best and fairest way. The best of matters are those which are moderate, neither
one extreme nor the other.
And those who invoke not any other god along with Allah, nor kill
such person as Allah has forbidden, except for just cause, nor
commit illegal sexual intercourse -- and whoever does this shall
those who invoke not any other god along with Allah, nor kill such person as
Allah has forbidden, except for just cause, nor commit illegal sexual
intercourse -- and whoever does this shall receive Athama.
Imam Ahmad recorded that Abdullah bin Mas`ud said, "The Messenger of Allah was
asked which sin is the most serious?''
تَجْعَلَ للهِ نِدًّا وَهُوَ خَلَقَك
That you appoint a rival to Allah when He has created you.
That you kill your child for fear that he may eat with you.
He said, "Then what?''
تُزَانِي حَلِيلَةَ جَارِك
That you commit adultery with your neighbor's wife.
"Then Allah revealed, confirming that:
وَالَّذِينَ لَا يَدْعُونَ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلَهًا آخَرَ
And those who invoke not any other god along with Allah....''
was also recorded by An-Nasa'i, and by Al-Bukhari and Muslim.
It was narrated that Sa`id bin Jubayr heard Ibn Abbas saying that some of the
people of Shirk killed a great deal and
committed Zina a great deal, then they came
to Muhammad and said:
"What you are saying and calling people to is good, if only you would tell us
that there is a way to expiate for what we have done.'' Then the
وَالَّذِينَ لَا يَدْعُونَ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلَهًا آخَرَ
And those who invoke not any other god along with Allah... was revealed, as was
Except those who repent and believe, and do righteous deeds;
means, those who do these evil deeds will be punished in the manner described,
إِلَّا مَن تَابَ
(Except those who repent), that is; those who repent in this world to Allah from
all of those deeds, for then Allah will accept their repentance. This is
evidence that the repentance of the murderer is acceptable, and there is no
contradiction between this and the Ayah in
وَمَن يَقْتُلْ مُؤْمِناً مُّتَعَمِّداً
And whoever kills a
believer intentionally, (4:93)
because even though this was revealed in Al-Madinah, the meaning is general, and
it could be interpreted to refer to one who does not repent, because this
Ayah states that forgiveness is only for
those who repent.
Verily, Allah forgives
not that partners should be set up with Him, but He forgives except that to whom
He wills. (4:48)
And in the authentic Sunnah, it is reported
from the Messenger of Allah that the repentance of a murderer is acceptable, as
was stated in the story of the person who killed one hundred men and then
repented, and Allah accepted his repentance, and other
I know the last person who will be brought forth from Hell, and
the last person who will enter Paradise. A man will be brought and it will be
said, "Take away his major sins and ask him about his minor sins.''
So it will be said to him: "On such and such a day, you did such
and such, and on such and such a day, you did such and such.''
He will say, "Yes, and he will not be able to deny anything.''
Then it will be said to him: "For every evil deed you now have
one good merit.''
He will say: "O Lord, I did things that I do not see here.''
He (Abu Dharr) said: "And the Messenger of Allah smiled so broadly that his
molars could be seen.''
Muslim recorded it.
Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abu Jabir heard Makhul say,
"A very old man with sunken eyes came and said, `O Messenger of Allah, a man
betrayed others and did immoral deeds, and there was no evil deed which he did
not do. If (his sins) were to be distributed among the whole of mankind, they
would all be doomed. Is there any repentance for him?''
The Messenger of Allah said: أَأَسْلَمْتَHave
you become Muslim?
He said, "As for me, I bear witness that there is no God but Allah Alone, with
no partner or associate, and that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger.''
Those who, when Allah is
mentioned, feel a fear in their hearts and when His Ayat are recited unto them,
they increase their faith; and they put their trust in their Lord. (8:2)
Unlike the disbelievers. When they hear the Words of Allah, they are not
affected by them or moved to change their ways. They persist in their disbelief,
wrongdoing, ignorance and misguidance, as Allah says:
those who say: "Our Lord! Bestow on us from our wives and our offspring the
comfort of our eyes...''
means those who ask Allah to bring forth from their loins offspring who will
obey Him and worship Him and not associate anything in worship with Him.
Ibn Abbas said,
"This means (offspring) who will strive to obey Allah and bring them joy in this
world and the Hereafter.''
Imam Ahmad recorded that Jubayr bin Nufayr said:
"We sat with Al-Miqdad bin Al-Aswad one day, and a man passed by and said, "How
blessed are these two eyes which saw the Messenger of Allah! Would that we had
seen what you saw and witnessed what you witnessed.''
Al-Miqdad got angry, and I was surprised, because the man had not said anything
but good. Then he turned to him and said,
"What makes a man wish to be present when Allah had caused him to be absent, and
he does not know how he would have behaved if he had been there By Allah, there
are people who saw the Messenger of Allah, and Allah will throw them on their
faces in Hell because they did not accept him or believe in him. Are you not
grateful that Allah brought you forth from your mothers' wombs believing in your
Lord and in what your Prophet brought, and that the test went to others and not
to you Allah sent His Prophet during the most difficult time that any Prophet
was ever sent, after a long period of ignorance, when the people could see no
better religion than the worship of idols, and he brought the Criterion which
distinguishes truth from falsehood and which would separate a father from his
son. A man would realize that his father, son or brother was a disbeliever, and
since Allah had opened his heart to Faith, he knew that if his relative died he
would go to Hell, so he could not rest knowing that his loved one was in the
Fire. This is what Allah referred to in the Ayah,
وَالَّذِينَ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا هَبْ لَنَا مِنْ أَزْوَاجِنَا
وَذُرِّيَّاتِنَا قُرَّةَ أَعْيُنٍ
(And those who say: "Our Lord! Bestow on us from our wives and our offspring
the comfort of our eyes...'').
chain of narrators is Sahih, although they did not report it.
... وَاجْعَلْنَا لِلْمُتَّقِينَ إِمَامًا
make us leaders of those who have Taqwa.
Ibn Abbas, Al-Hasan, As-Suddi, Qatadah and Rabi` bin Anas said: "Leaders who
would be taken as examples in good.''
Others said: "Guides who would call others to goodness.''
They wanted their worship to be connected to the worship of their children and
offspring, and their guidance to go beyond themselves and benefit others. This
would be more rewarding and a better end, as it was recorded in
Sahih Muslim from Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be
pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allah said: