Here Allah tells His Messenger Muhammad about what happened to Musa, peace be
upon him, how Allah chose him, spoke with him and gave him mighty, dazzling
signs and overwhelming proof, and sent him to Fir`awn and his people, but they
denied the proof, disbelieved in him and arrogantly refused to follow him.
meaning, remember when Musa was traveling with his family and lost his way. This
was at night, in the dark. Musa had seen a fire beside the mountain, i.e., he
had noticed a fire burning brightly, and said,
when he came to it, he was called: "Blessed is whosoever is in the fire, and
whosoever is round about it!''
meaning, when he came to it, he saw a great and terrifying sight: the fire was
burning in a green bush, and the fire was burning ever brighter while the bush
was growing ever more green and beautiful. Then he raised his head, and saw that
its light was connected to the clouds of the sky.
Ibn Abbas and others said, "It was not a fire, rather it was shining light.''
According to one report narrated from Ibn Abbas, it was the Light of the Lord of
the worlds. Musa stood amazed by what he was seeing and
نُودِيَ أَن بُورِكَ مَن فِي النَّارِ (he was called:
"Blessed is whosoever is in the fire...''),
Ibn Abbas said, "This means, Holy is (whosoever is in the fire).''
(and whosoever is round about it) means, of the angels.
This was the view of Ibn Abbas, Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Al-Hasan and Qatadah.
... وَسُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ
glorified be Allah, the Lord of all that exists,
Who does whatever He wills and there is nothing like Him among His creation.
Nothing He has made can encompass Him, and He is the Exalted, the Almighty, Who
is utterly unlike all that He has created. Heaven and earth cannot contain Him,
but He is the One, the Self-Sufficient Master, Who is far above any comparison
with His creation.
put your hand into the opening of your garment, it will come forth white without
This is another sign, further brilliant proof of the ability of Allah to do
whatever He wills. It is also confirmation of the truth of the one to whom the
miracle was given.
Allah commanded him to put his hand into the opening of his garment, and when he
put his hand in and took it out again, it came out white and shining as if it
were a piece of the moon or a flash of dazzling lightning.
... فِي تِسْعِ آيَاتٍ ...
among the nine signs,
means, `these are two of the nine signs which you will be supported with and
which will serve as proof for you. '
meaning, `see, O Muhammad, what were the consequences of their actions when
Allah destroyed them and drowned every last one of them in a single morning.'
The point of this story is: beware, `O you who disbelieve in Muhammad and deny
the Message that he has brought from his Lord, lest the same thing that befell
them befall you also.'
But what is worse, is that
Muhammad is nobler and greater than Musa, and his proof is stronger than that of
Musa, for the signs that Allah has given him are combined with his presence and
his character, in addition to the fact that previous Prophets foretold his
coming and took a covenant from the people that they would follow him if they
should see him, may the best of blessings and peace from his Lord be upon him.
"My Lord! Grant me the power and ability that I may be grateful
for Your favors which You have bestowed on me and on my parents, and
that I may do righteous good deeds that will please You, and admit
me by Your mercy among Your righteous servants.''
Dawud and Suleiman (peace be upon
them), the organization of Suleiman's Troops and His passage through the Valley
of the Ants
Here Allah tells us about the great blessings and favors which He bestowed upon
two of His servants and Prophets, Dawud (David) and his son Suleiman (Solomon),
peace be upon them both, and how they enjoyed happiness in this world and the
Hereafter, power and authority in this world, and the position of being Prophets
and Messengers. Allah says:
means, in kingship and Prophethood. What is meant here is not wealth, because if
that were the case, Suleiman would not have been singled out from among the sons
of Dawud, as Dawud had one hundred wives. Rather what is meant is the
inheritance of kingship and Prophethood, for the wealth of the Prophets cannot
be inherited, as the Messenger of Allah said:
there were gathered before Suleiman his hosts of Jinn and men, and birds, and
they all were set in battle order.
means, all of Suleiman's troops of Jinn, men and birds were gathered together,
and he rode with them in a display of might and glory, with people marching
behind him, followed by the Jinn, and the birds flying above his head. When it
was hot, they would shade him with their wings.
... فَهُمْ يُوزَعُونَ
they all were set in battle order.
The first and the last of them were brought together, so that none of them would
step out of place.
Mujahid said: "Officials were appointed to keep each group in order, and to keep
the first and the last together so that no one would step out of line -- just as
kings do nowadays.''
Lord! Grant me the power and ability that I may be grateful for Your favors
which You have bestowed on me and on my parents, and that I may do righteous
good deeds that will please You,
meaning: `inspire me to give thanks for the blessings that You have bestowed
upon me by teaching me to understand what the birds and animals say, and the
blessings that You have bestowed upon my parents by making them Muslims who
believe in You.'
... وَأَنْ أَعْمَلَ صَالِحًا تَرْضَاهُ ...
that I may do righteous good deeds that will please You,
means, `deeds that You love which will earn Your pleasure.'
Grant me the power and ability that I
may be grateful for Your favors which You have bestowed on me and on my
parents, and that I may do righteous good deeds that will please You,
and admit me by Your mercy among Your righteous servants.
Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr and others narrated from Ibn Abbas and others that the
hoopoe was an expert who used to show Suleiman where water was if he was out in
open land and needed water.
The hoopoe would look for water for him in the various strata of the earth, just
as a man looks at things on the surface of the earth, and he would know just how
far below the surface the water was. When the hoopoe showed him where the water
was, Suleiman would command the Jinn to dig in that place until they brought
water from the depths of the earth.
One day Suleiman went to some open land and checked on the birds, but he could
not see the hoopoe.
(Suleiman) said: "What is the matter that I see not the hoopoe Or is he among
One day Abdullah bin Abbas told a similar story,
and among the people was a man from the Khawarij
whose name was Nafi` bin Al-Azraq, who often used to raise objections to Ibn
Abbas. He said to him,
"Stop, O Ibn Abbas; you will be defeated (in argument) today!''
Ibn Abbas said: "Why?''
Nafi` said: "You are telling us that the hoopoe can see water beneath the
ground, but any boy can put seed in a trap and cover the trap with dirt, and the
hoopoe will come and take the seed, so the boy can catch him in the trap.''
Ibn Abbas said, "If it was not for the fact that this man would go and tell
others that he had defeated Ibn Abbas in argument, I would not even answer.''
Then he said to Nafi`:
"Woe to you! When the decree strikes a person, his eyes become blind and he
loses all caution.''
Nafi` said: "By Allah I will never dispute with you concerning anything in the
عَذَابًا شَدِيدًا ...
will surely punish him with a severe torment,
Al-A`mash said, narrating from Al-Minhal bin `Amr from Sa`id that Ibn Abbas
said: "He meant, by plucking his feathers.''
Abdullah bin Shaddad said: "By plucking his feathers and exposing him to the
This was also the view of more than one of the Salaf,
that it means plucking his feathers and leaving him exposed to be eaten by ants.
... أَوْ لَأَذْبَحَنَّهُ ...
means, killing him.
... أَوْ لَيَأْتِيَنِّي بِسُلْطَانٍ مُّبِينٍ
unless he brings me a clear reason.
i.e., a valid excuse.
Sufyan bin Uyaynah and Abdullah bin Shaddad said:
"When the hoopoe came back, the other birds said to him: "What kept you,
Suleiman has vowed to shed your blood.''
The hoopoe said: "Did he make any exception (did he say `unless!').''
They said, "Yes, he said: لَأُعَذِّبَنَّهُ عَذَابًا شَدِيدًا أَوْ
لَأَذْبَحَنَّهُ أَوْ لَيَأْتِيَنِّي بِسُلْطَانٍ مُّبِينٍ (I will surely punish
him with a severe torment or slaughter him, unless he brings me a clear reason).
Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, "This is Bilqis bint Sharahil, the queen of Saba'.''
... وَأُوتِيَتْ مِن كُلِّ شَيْءٍ ...
has been given all things,
means, all the conveniences of this world that a powerful monarch could need.
... وَلَهَا عَرْشٌ عَظِيمٌ
she has a great throne.
meaning, a tremendous chair adorned with gold and different kinds of jewels and
The historians said,
"This throne was in a great, strong palace which was high and firmly
constructed. In it there were three hundred and sixty windows on the east side,
and a similar number on the west, and it was constructed in such a way that each
day when the sun rose it would shine through one window, and when it set it
would shine through the opposite window. And the people used to prostrate to the
sun morning and evening."
And from among His signs
are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. Prostrate yourselves not to
the sun nor to the moon, but prostrate yourselves to Allah Who created them, if
you indeed worship Him. (41:37)
you with this letter of mine and deliver it to them then draw back from them and
see what they return.
Suleiman wrote a letter to Bilqis and her people and gave it to the hoopoe to
It was said that he carried it on his wings, as is the way with birds, or that
he carried it in his beak. He went to their land and found the palace of Bilqis,
then he went to her private chambers and threw the letter through a small
window, then he stepped to one side out of good manners.
Bilqis was amazed and confused when she saw that, then she went and picked up
the letter, opened its seal and read it.
The letter said: it is from Suleiman, and it (reads): `In the Name of Allah, the
Most Gracious, the Most Merciful; Be you not exalted against me, but come to me
submitting (as Muslims).'
So she gathered her commanders and ministers and the leaders of her land, and
chiefs! Verily, here is delivered to me a noble letter.''
She described it as such because of the wondrous things she had seen, that it
was delivered by a bird who threw it to her, then stood aside out of good
manners. This was something that no king could do.
verily, I am going to send him a present, and see with what the messengers
meaning, `I will send him a gift befitting for one of his status, and will wait
and see what his response will be. Perhaps he will accept that and leave us
alone, or he will impose a tax which we can pay him every year, so that he will
not fight us and wage war against us.'
"May Allah have mercy on her and be pleased with her -- how wise she was as a
Muslim and (before that) as an idolator! She understood how gift-giving has a
good effect on people.''
Ibn Abbas and others said:
"She said to her people,
if he accepts the gift, he is a king, so fight him; but if he does not accept
it, he is a Prophet, so follow him.''
the Throne of Bilqis was brought in an Instant
Muhammad bin Ishaq reported from Yazid bin Ruman:
"When the messengers returned with word of what Suleiman said, she said: `By
Allah, I knew he was more than a king, and that we have no power to match him,
and that we can gain nothing by being stubborn with him. So, she sent word to
"I am coming to you with the leaders of my people to see what you will instruct
us to do and what you are calling us to of your religion.''
Then she issued commands that her throne, which was made of gold and inlaid with
rubies, chrysolite and pearls, should be placed in the innermost of seven rooms,
one within the other, and all the doors should be locked.
Then she told her deputy whom she was leaving in charge, "Take care of my people
and my throne, and do not let anyone approach it or see it until I come back to
Then she set off to meet Suleiman with twelve thousand of her commanders from
the leaders of Yemen, under each of whose command were many thousands of men.
Suleiman sent the Jinn to bring him news of her progress and route every day and
night, then when she drew near, he gathered together the Jinns and humans who
were under his control and,
will bring it to you before you rise from your place.
Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said, "Before you get up from where
you are sitting.''
As-Suddi and others said:
"He used to sit to pass judgments and rulings over the people, and to eat, from
the beginning of the day until noon.''
... وَإِنِّي عَلَيْهِ لَقَوِيٌّ أَمِينٌ
verily, I am indeed strong and trustworthy for such work.
Ibn Abbas said: "Strong enough to carry it and trustworthy with the jewels it
contains. Suleiman, upon him be peace, said, "I want it faster than that.''
From this it seems that Suleiman wanted to bring this throne as a demonstration
of the greatness of the power and authority that Allah had bestowed upon him and
the troops that He had subjugated to him. Power such as had never been given to
anyone else, before or since, so that this would furnish proof of his
Prophethood before Bilqis and her people, because this would be a great and
wondrous thing, if he brought her throne as if he were in her country, before
they could come to it, although it was hidden and protected by so many locked
doors. When Suleiman said, "I want it faster than that,
-"O My servants, if the first of you and the last of you, mankind and Jinn alike,
were all to be as pious as the most pious among you, that would not add to My
dominion in the slightest.
servants, if the first of you and the last of you, mankind and Jinn alike, were
all to be as evil as the most evil one among you, that would not detract from My
dominion in the slightest.
servants, these are deeds which I am recording for you, and I will judge you
according to them, so whoever finds something good, let him praise Allah, and
whoever finds otherwise, let him blame no one but himself.''
When Suleiman brought the throne of Bilqis before she and her people arrived, he
issued orders that some of its features should be altered, so that he could test
her and see whether she recognized it and how composed she would be when she saw
it. Would she hasten to say either that it was her throne or that it was not! So
when she came, it was said: "Is your throne like this'!'
Her throne, which had been altered and disguised, with some things added and
others taken away, was shown to her. She was wise and steadfast, intelligent and
strong-willed. She did not hasten to say that this was her throne, because it
was far away from her. Neither did she hasten to say that it was not her throne,
when she saw that some things had been altered and changed.
... قَالَتْ كَأَنَّهُ هُوَ ...
said: (It is) as though it were the very same.
This is the ultimate in intelligence and strong resolve.
Saddaha that which she used to worship besides Allah has prevented her, for she
was of a disbelieving people.
This is a continuation of the words of Suleiman -- according to the opinion of
Mujahid and Sa`id bin Jubayr, may Allah be pleased with them both -- i.e.,
Suleiman said: وَأُوتِينَا الْعِلْمَ مِن قَبْلِهَا وَكُنَّا مُسْلِمِينَ
(Knowledge was bestowed on us before her, and we had submitted to Allah). and
what stopped her from worshipping Allah alone was
مَا كَانَت تَّعْبُدُ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ إِنَّهَا كَانَتْ مِن قَوْمٍ كَافِرِينَ (that which she used to
worship besides Allah, for she was of a disbelieving people).
What Mujahid and Sa`id said is good; it was also the view of Ibn Jarir.
Then Ibn Jarir said, "It could be that the subject of the verb
(And Saddaha) refers to Suleiman or to Allah,
so that the phrase now means:
مَا كَانَت تَّعْبُدُ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ (She would not
worship anything over than Allah),
إِنَّهَا كَانَتْ مِن قَوْمٍ كَافِرِينَ
(for she was of a disbelieving people).
I say: the opinion of Mujahid is supported by the fact that she declared her
Islam after she entered the Sarh, as we shall
was said to her: "Enter As-Sarh'' but when she saw it, she thought it was a
pool, and she (tucked up her clothes) uncovering her legs.
Suleiman had commanded the Shayatin to build
for her a huge palace of glass beneath which water was flowing. Anyone who did
not know the nature of the building would think that it was water, but in fact
there was a layer of glass between a person walking and the water.
Build me a Sarh that I
may arrive at the ways. (40:36-37)
is also used to refer to the high constructed palaces in Yemen.
means sturdily constructed and smooth.
... مِّن قَوَارِيرَ ...
means, made of glass, i.e., it was built with smooth surfaces.
is a fortress in Dawmat Al-Jandal. What is meant here is that Suleiman built a
huge, lofty palace of glass for this queen, in order to show her the greatness
of his authority and power. When she saw for herself what Allah had given him
and how majestic his position was, she submitted to the command of Allah and
acknowledged that he was a noble Prophet, so she submitted to Allah and said:
... قَالَتْ رَبِّ إِنِّي ظَلَمْتُ نَفْسِي ...
said: My Lord! Verily, I have wronged myself,
meaning, by her previous disbelief and Shirk
and by the fact that she and her people had worshipped the sun instead of Allah.
وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَآ إِلَى ثَمُودَ
أَخَاهُمْ صَـلِحاً أَنِ اعْبُدُواْ اللَّهَ فَإِذَا هُمْ فَرِيقَانِ
indeed We sent to Thamud their brother Salih, (saying): "Worship
Allah.'' Then look! They became two parties quarreling with each
They said: "Swear one to another by Allah that we shall make a
secret night attack on him and his household, and thereafter we will
surely say to his near relatives: `We witnessed not the destruction
of his household, and verily, we are telling the truth.'''
The Plot of the Mischief-Makers and
the End of the People of Thamud
Allah tells us about the evildoers of Thamud
and their leaders who used to call their people to misguidance and disbelief,
and to deny Salih. Eventually they killed the she-camel and were about to kill
Salih too. They plotted to let him sleep with his family at night, then they
would assassinate him and tell his relatives that they knew nothing about what
happened to him, and that they were telling the truth because none of them had
"Enjoy yourselves in
your homes for three days. This is a promise (i.e., a threat) that will not be
They said: `Salih claims that he will finish with us in three days, but we will
finish him and his family before the three days are over.'
Salih had a place of worship in a rocky tract in a valley, where he used to
pray. So they set out to go to a cave there one night, and said, `When he comes
to pray, we will kill him, then we will return. When we have finished him off,
we will go to his family and finish them off too.'
Then Allah sent down a rock upon them from the mountains round about; they
feared that it would crush them, so they ran into the cave and the rock covered
the mouth of the cave while they were inside.
Their people did not know where they were or what had happened to them. So Allah
punished some of them here, and some of them there, and He saved Salih and the
people who were with him.
Allah tells us about His servant and Messenger Lut, peace be upon him, and how
he warned his people of Allah's punishment for committing an act of immorality
which no human ever committed before them -- intercourse with males instead of
females. This is a major sin, whereby men are satisfied with men and women are
with women (i.e., homosexuality).
Glorified be your Lord,
the Lord of honor and power! (He is free) from what they attribute unto Him! And
peace be on the Messengers! And all the praises and thanks be to Allah, Lord of
all that exists.'' (37:180-182)
Ath-Thawri and As-Suddi said,
"This refers to the Companions of Muhammad, may Allah be pleased with them
Something similar was also narrated from Ibn Abbas, and there is no
contradiction between the two views, because they were also among the servants
of Allah whom He had chosen, although the description is more befitting of the
... آللَّهُ خَيْرٌ أَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ
Is Allah better, or what they ascribe as partners (to Him)!
This is a question aimed at denouncing the idolators for their worship of other
gods besides Allah.
Some more Proofs of Tawhid
Then Allah begins to explain that He is the Only One Who creates, provides and
controls, as He says:
meaning, He created those heavens which are so high and serene, with their
shining stars and revolving planets. And He created the earth, with its varying
heights and densities, and He created everything in it, mountains, hills,
plains, rugged terrain, wildernesses, crops, trees, fruits, seas and animals of
all different kinds and colors and shapes, etc.
... وَأَنزَلَ لَكُم مِّنَ السَّمَاء مَاء ...
sends down for you water from the sky,
means, He sends it as a provision for His servants,
And if you were to ask
them: "Who sends down water from the sky, and gives life therewith to the earth
after its death!'' they will surely reply: "Allah.'' (29:63)
Meaning they will admit that He is the One Who does all these things, Alone,
with no partner or associate, but then they worship others alongside Him, others
who they admit cannot create or provide anything. But the Only One Who deserves
to be worshipped is the Only One Who can create and provide,
... أَإِلَهٌ مَّعَ اللَّهِ ...
there any god with Allah,
meaning, `is there any god that can be worshipped alongside Allah, when it is
clear to you and anyone who with reason that He is the Creator and Provider, as
you yourselves admit!'
Then Allah says:
... بَلْ هُمْ قَوْمٌ يَعْدِلُونَ
but they are a people who ascribe equals (to Him)!
meaning, they describe
others as being equal and comparable to Allah.
Is not He Who has made the earth as a fixed abode, and has placed
rivers in its midst, and has placed firm mountains therein, and has
set a barrier between the two seas (of salt and sweet water)! Is
there any ilah (god) with Allah Nay, but most of them know not!
not He Who has made the earth as a fixed abode,
meaning, stable and stationary, so that it does not move or convulse, because if
it were to do so, it would not be a good place for people to live on. But by His
grace and mercy, He has made it smooth and calm, and it is not shaken or moved.
Allah, Who has made for
you the earth as a dwelling place and the sky as a canopy. (40:64)
... وَجَعَلَ خِلَالَهَا
has placed rivers in its midst,
means, He has placed rivers which are fresh and sweet, cutting through the
earth, and He has made them of different types, large rivers, small rivers and
some in between. He has caused them to flow in all directions, east, west,
south, north, according to the needs of mankind in different areas and regions,
as He has created them throughout the world and sends them their provision
according to their needs.
... وَجَعَلَ لَهَا رَوَاسِيَ ...
has placed firm mountains therein,
means, high mountains which stabilize the earth and make it steadfast, so that
it does not shake.
... وَجَعَلَ بَيْنَ الْبَحْرَيْنِ حَاجِزًا ...
has set a barrier between the two seas,
means, He has placed a barrier between the fresh water and the salt water, to
prevent them from mixing lest they corrupt one another. Divine wisdom dictates
that each of them should stay as it is meant to be. The sweet water is that
which flows in rivers among mankind, and it is meant to be fresh and palatable
so that it may be used to water animals and plants and fruits. The salt water is
that which surrounds the continents on all sides, and its water is meant to be
salty and undrinkable lest the air be corrupted by its smell, as Allah says:
Is not He Who responds to the distressed one, when he calls on
Him, and Who removes the evil, and makes you inheritors of the
earth, generations after generations! Is there any god with Allah
Little is that you remember!
-Do not slander
anyone and do not think of any good deed as insignificant, even if it is only
meeting your brother with a cheerful face or emptying your vessel into the
vessel of one who is asking for water.
-Wear your lower
garment at mid-calf length, or -- if you insist -- let it reach your ankles, and
beware of lowering the garment below the ankles along the ground, for it is a
form of showing-off, and Allah does not like showing-off.
Story of a Mujahid who fought for the sake of Allah
In his biography of
Fatimah bint Al-Hasan Umm Ahmad Al-Ajaliyyah, Al-Hafiz bin Asakir reported that
day the disbelievers defeated the Muslims in a battle. There was a good horse
which belonged to a rich man who was also righteous. The horse just stood there,
so its owner said, `What is the matter with you Woe to you! I was only preparing
you for a day such as this.'
horse said to him: `How can you expect me not to perform badly, when you
delegated my feeding to the grooms, and they mistreated me and only fed me a
man said, `I make you a promise before Allah that from this day on, only I will
feed you from my own lap.'
the horse began to run, and his owner was saved, and after that he only ever fed
the horse from his own lap.
story became well known among the people, and they started to come to him to
hear the story from his own lips. News of this reached the king of Byzantium,
and he said: `A city where this man is, will be kept safe from harm.' He wanted
to bring the man to his own city, so he sent an apostate (a man who had left
Islam) who was living in his city to go to him, and when he reached him, he
pretended that his intentions towards Islam and its followers were good, so the
Mujahid trusted him.
day they went out walking along the shore, but the apostate made a pact with
another person, a follower of the Byzantine king, to come and help him take the
Mujahid prisoner. When they made their move, he lifted his gaze to the sky and
said, `O Allah! He has deceived me by swearing in Your Name, so protect me in
whatever way You will.'
two wild animals came out and seized them, and the Mujahid came back safe and
Inheritance of the Earth
... وَيَجْعَلُكُمْ خُلَفَاء الْأَرْضِ ...
makes you inheritors of the earth,
generation inherits from the generation that came before them, one after the
other, as Allah says:
And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels: "Verily, I am going to place
generations after generations on earth.'' (2:30)
meaning, people who
will come after one another, as we have already stated.
... وَيَجْعَلُكُمْ خُلَفَاء الْأَرْضِ ...
makes you inheritors of the earth,
means, nation after
nation, generation after generation, people after people.
If He had willed,
He could have created them all at one time, and not made some of them the
offspring of others.
If He had willed,
He could have created them all together, as He created Adam from dust.
If He had willed,
He could have made some of them the offspring of others, but not caused any of
them to die until they all died at one time; in this case the earth would have
become constricted for them and it would be too difficult for them to live and
earn a living, and they would have caused inconvenience and harm to one another.
But His wisdom and
decree ruled that they should be created from one soul, then their numbers
should be greatly increased, so He created them on the earth and made them
generation after generation, nation after nation, until their time will come to
an end and there will be no one left on earth, as Allah has decreed and as He
has completely counted out their numbers. Then the Resurrection will come to
pass, and each person will be rewarded or punished according to his deeds.
Is not He Who guides you in the darkness of the land and the sea,
and Who sends the winds as heralds of glad tidings, going before His
mercy Is there any god with Allah Exalted be Allah above all that
they associate as partners!
He knows that which goes
into the earth and that which comes forth from it, and that which descends from
the heaven and that which ascends to it. (34:2)
Allah, may He be blessed and exalted, sends down water from the sky as a
blessing, and causes it to penetrate the earth, and then come forth as springs.
After that, by means of the water He brings forth all kinds of crops, fruits and
flowers, in all their different forms and colors.
And they will be set
before your Lord in rows, (and Allah will say:) "Now indeed, you have come to Us
as We created you the first time. Nay, but you thought that We had appointed no
meeting for you (with Us).'' (18:48)
i.e., the disbelievers among you.
By the same token, Allah says here:
بَلْ هُمْ فِي شَكٍّ مِّنْهَا (. meaning, they doubt that it will
come to pass.
the promises that bodies will be restored are
إِلَّا أَسَاطِيرُ الْأَوَّلِينَ
(nothing but tales of ancients), meaning that they were taken by the people who
came before us from books which were handed down from one to the other, but they
have no basis in reality.
Responding to their thoughts of disbelief and their belief that there would be
no Resurrection, Allah said,
Travel in the land and see how has been the end of the criminals.
meaning, those who denied the Messengers and their message of the Resurrection
and other matters. See how the punishment and vengeance of Allah struck them and
how Allah saved from among them the noble Messengers and the believers who
This will be an indication of the truth of the Message brought by the
means, `because they plot
against you and reject what you have brought, for Allah will help and support
you, and cause your religion to prevail over those who oppose you and stubbornly
resist you in the east and in the west.'
Surely, even when they
cover themselves with their garments, He knows what they conceal and what they
Then Allah tells us that He is the Knower of the unseen in the heavens and on
earth, and that He is the Knower of the unseen and the seen, i.e., that which is
unseen by His servants and that which they can see.
such as their different opinions about `Isa.
The Jews lied about him while the Christians exaggerated in praise for him, so
the Qur'an came with the moderate word of truth and justice: that he was one of
the servants of Allah, and one of His noble Prophets and Messengers, may the
best of peace and blessings be upon him, as the Qur'an says:
in all your affairs, and convey the Message of your Lord.
... إِنَّكَ عَلَى الْحَقِّ الْمُبِينِ
surely, you are on manifest truth.
meaning, you are following manifest truth, even though you are opposed by those
who oppose you because they are doomed. The Word of your Lord has been justified
against them, so that they will not believe even if all the signs are brought to
can you lead the blind out of their error. You can only make to hear those who
believe in Our Ayat, so they submit (became Muslims).
meaning, those who have
hearing and insight will respond to you, those whose hearing and sight are of
benefit to their hearts and who are humble towards Allah and to the Message that
comes to them through the mouths of the Messengers, may peace be upon them.
when the Word is fulfilled against them, We shall bring out from the earth a
beast for them, to speak to them because mankind believed not with certainty in
This is the beast which will emerge at the end of time, when mankind has become
corrupt and neglected the commands of Allah and changed the true religion. Then
Allah will cause a beast to emerge from the earth.
It was said that it will be brought from Makkah, or from somewhere else, as we
shall discuss in detail below, if Allah wills.
The beast will speak to people about matters. Ibn Abbas, Al-Hasan and Qatadah
said, and it was also narrated from Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, that it
will speak words, meaning, it will address them.
Many Hadiths and reports have been narrated about the beast, and we will narrate
as many of them as Allah enables us to, for He is the One Whose help we seek.
Imam Ahmad recorded that Hudhayfah bin Asid Al-Ghifari said,
"The Messenger of Allah came out from his room while we were discussing the
matter of the Hour. He said:
The first of the signs to appear will be the rising of the sun
from the west, and the emergence of the beast to mankind in the forenoon.
Whichever of them appears first, the other will follow close behind it.
In his Sahih, Muslim recorded that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him,
said that the Messenger of Allah said:
A beast will emerge from the earth, and with it will be the staff
of Musa and the ring of Suleiman, peace be upon them both. It will strike the
nose of the disbelievers with the staff, and it will make the face of the
believer bright with the ring, until when people gather to eat, they will be
able to recognize the believers from the disbelievers.
It also was recorded by Imam Ahmad, with the wording:
It will strike the nose of the disbelievers with the ring, and
will make the face of the believer bright with the staff, until when people
gather for a meal, they will say to one another, O believer, or O disbeliever.
It was also recorded by Ibn Majah.
Ibn Jurayj reported that Ibn Az-Zubayr described the beast and said,
"Its head is like the head of a bull, its eyes are like the eyes of a pig, its
ears are like the ears of an elephant, its horns are like the horns of a stag,
its neck is like the neck of an ostrich, its chest is like the chest of a lion,
its color is like the color of a tiger, its haunches are like the haunches of a
cat, its tail is like the tail of a ram, and its legs are like the legs of a
camel. Between each pair of its joints is a distance of twelve cubits. It will
bring out with it the staff of Musa and the ring of Suleiman.
There will be no believer left without it making a white spot on his face, which
will spread until all his face is shining white as a result; and there will be
no disbeliever left without it making a black spot on his face, which will
spread until all his face is black as a result, then when the people trade with
one another in the marketplace, they will say, `How much is this, O believer?'
`How much is this, O disbeliever?' And when the members of one household sit
down together to eat, they will know who is a believer and who is a disbeliever.
Then the beast will say: `O so-and-so, enjoy yourself, for you are among the
people of Paradise.'
And it will say: `O so-and-so, you are among the people of Hell,'
Gathering the Wrongdoers on the Day
Allah tells us about the Day of Resurrection when the wrongdoers who disbelieved
in the signs and Messengers of Allah will be gathered before Allah, so that He
will ask them about what they did in this world, rebuking, scolding and
the Word will be fulfilled against them, because they have done wrong, and they
will be unable to speak.
They will be stunned and speechless, unable to give any answer. This is because
they wronged themselves in the world, and now they have returned to the One Who
sees the unseen and the seen, from Whom nothing can be hidden.
Then Allah points out His complete power, immense authority and greatness, all
dictating that He is to be obeyed and that His commands must be followed, and
that the message of inescapable truth brought by His Prophets must be believed
And (remember) the Day on which the Trumpet (Sur) will be blown
-- and all who are in the heavens and all who are on the earth, will
be terrified except him whom Allah wills. And all shall come to Him,
And you will see the mountains and think them solid, but they
shall pass away as the passing away of the clouds. The work of
Allah, Who perfected all things, verily, He is well-acquainted with
what you do.
(remember) the Day on which the Trumpet (Sur) will be blown -- and all who are
in the heavens and all who are on the earth, will be terrified,
Allah tells us about the terrors of the Day when the
Sur will be blown.
The Sur, as described in the
Hadith, is, قَرْنٌ يُنْفَخُ فِيه(a horn which is
According to the Hadith about the
Sur (Trumpet), it is (the angel) Israfil who
will blow into it by the command of Allah, may He be exalted. He will blow into
it for the first time, for a long time. This will signal the end of the life of
this world, and the Hour will come upon the most evil of people ever to live.
Everyone who is in the heavens and on earth will be terrified,
... إِلَّا مَن شَاء اللَّهُ ...
except him whom Allah wills.
these are the martyrs, for they are alive, with their Lord, and being provided
Imam Muslim bin Al-Hajjaj recorded that Abdullah bin `Amr, may Allah be pleased
with him, said that a man came to him and said,
"What is this Hadith that you are narrating,
that the Hour will come upon such and such people?''
"Subhan Allah or
`La Ilaha Illallah (or something
similar), I had decided that I would not narrate anything to anyone now. I had
only said that after a little while, you will see a major event which will
destroy the House (the Ka`bah), and such and such will happen.''
The Dajjal will emerge in my Ummah, and will remain for forty --
I do not know whether he said forty days, or forty months, or forty years --
then Allah will send `Isa son of Maryam, who looks like Urwah bin Mas`ud, and he
will search for him and destroy him.
Then mankind will remain for seven years during which there will
not be any enmity between any two people.
Then Allah will send a cool wind from the direction of Syria, and
no one will be left on the face of the earth who has even a speck of goodness or
faith in his heart, but it will take him. Even if he entered into the heart of a
mountain, the wind would follow him and seize him.''
Then the most evil of people will remain, and they will be as
nimble as birds and will be more temperamental than wild beasts. They will not
recognize anything good or denounce anything evil. The Shaytan will appear to
them and will say,
"Will you do
as I tell you!''
They will say, "What do you command us to do?''
He will command them to worship idols but in spite of this their
provision will be plentiful and they will lead comfortable lives.
Then the Sur (Trumpet) will be blown, and no one will hear it but
he will tilt his head to hear the sound. The first person to hear it will be a
man who is setting up the tank for watering his camels. He will fall down, and
all the other people will also fall down.
Then Allah will send -- or send down -- rain like dew -- or he
said, like shade (Nu'man was the one who was not sure) -- from which will grow
the bodies of the people.
Then the Trumpet will be blown again, and they will get up and
Then it will be said: "O mankind! Go to your Lord!'' And they
will be stopped, for they are to be questioned.
Then it will be said: "Bring forth the people who are to be sent
to the Fire.''
It will be asked: "How many are they?''
It will be said, "Out of every thousand, nine hundred and
That will be the Day which will make the children grey-headed,
and that will be the Day when the Shin shall be uncovered.
His saying; ثُمَّ يُنْفَخُ فِي الصُّورِ فَلَا يَسْمَعُهُ أَحَدٌ إِلَّا
أَصْغَى لِيتًا وَرَفَعَ لِيتًا
Then the Sur (Trumpet) will be blown, and no
one will hear it but he will tilt his head to hear the sound.
means that they will tilt their heads so that they can better hear the sound
coming from the heavens. That is the blast of the Sur which will terrify
everyone, then after that will come the blast which will cause them to die, then
the blast which will resurrect them to meet the Lord of the worlds -- this is
when all of the creation will be brought forth from their graves.
... وَكُلٌّ أَتَوْهُ دَاخِرِينَ
all shall come to Him, humbled.
meaning, humbling themselves and obeying Him, and no one will go against His
This is like the Ayat:
يَوْمَ يَدْعُوكُمْ فَتَسْتَجِيبُونَ بِحَمْدِهِ
On the Day when He will
call you, and you will answer with His praise and obedience. (17:52)
Then afterwards when He
will call you by a single call, behold, you will come out from the earth.
According to the Hadith about the
Sur, when it is blown for the third time,
Allah will command the souls to be put into the hole of the
Sur (Trumpet), then Israfil will blow into
it, after the bodies have grown in their graves and resting places, and when he
blows into the Sur (Trumpet), the souls will
fly, the believers' souls glowing with light, and the disbelievers' souls
looking like darkness. And Allah will say: "By My might and majesty, every soul
will go back to its body.''
And the souls will come back to their bodies and go through them like poison
going through a person who is bitten or stung by a poisonous creature. Then they
will get up, brushing off the dirt of their graves.
And they ask you
concerning the mountains: say, "My Lord will blast them and scatter them as
particles of dust. Then He shall leave them as a level smooth plain. You will
see therein nothing crooked or curved.'' (20:105-107)
Verily, this city was made sacred by Allah the day He created the
heavens and the earth, so it is sacred by the sanctity of Allah until the Day of
Resurrection. Its thorny bushes should not be cut, its game should not be
chased, and its lost property should not be picked up except by one who would
announce it publicly and none is allowed to uproot its thorny shrubs...''
This was reported in Sahih, Hasan, Musnad narrations, through various routes, by
such a large group that it is absolutely unquestionable, as has been explained
in the appropriate place in the book Al-Ahkam, to Allah is the praise and
... وَلَهُ كُلُّ شَيْءٍ ...
to Whom belongs everything.
This is a statement of general application following a specific statement, i.e.,
He is the Lord of this city, and the Lord and Sovereign of all things, there is
no god worthy of worship besides Him.