know only the outer appearance of the life of the world, and they are heedless
of the Hereafter.
Foretelling the Victory of the
These Ayat were revealed about the victory of
Sabur, the king of Persia, over Ash-Sham (Greater Syria), the adjoining partisan
states of the Arabian Peninsula, and the outlying regions of the land of the
Heraclius, the emperor of the Romans, was forced to flee to Constantinople where
he was besieged for a lengthy period. Then Heraclius regained the upper hand.
Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, commented on
this Ayah, Alif
Lam Mim. The Romans have been defeated. In the nearest land,
He said, "They were defeated and then they were victorious.''
"The idolators wanted the Persians to prevail over the Romans, because they were
idol worshippers, and the Muslims wanted the Romans to prevail over the
Persians, because they were People of the Book. This was mentioned to Abu Bakr,
who mentioned it to the Messenger of Allah. The Messenger of Allah said:
أَمَا إِنَّهُمْ سَيَغْلِبُون
They will certainly prevail.
Abu Bakr mentioned this to the idolators, and they said,
"Set a time limit for that, and if we prevail, we will get such and such; and if
you prevail, you will get such and such.''
So he set a limit of five years, and they (the Romans) did not prevail. Abu Bakr
mentioned that to the Messenger of Allah and he said:
Why do you not make it less than I (the narrator) think he meant
less than ten.
Sa`id bin Jubayr said: "Bid` means less than
Then the Romans were victorious, and he said, "That is what Allah said:
Alif Lam Mim. The Romans have been defeated. In
the nearest land, and they, after their defeat, will be victorious. In
Bid`i years. The decision of the matter,
before and after is only with Allah. And on that day, the believers will rejoice
-- with the help of Allah. He helps whom He wills, and He is the All-Mighty, the
was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i. At-Tirmidhi said: "Hasan
Abu Isa At-Tirmidhi recorded that Niyar bin Mukram Al-Aslami said:
"When the following Ayat were revealed,
Alif Lam Mim. The Romans have been defeated.
In the nearest land, and they, after their defeat, will be victorious. In
Bid` years….on the day they were revealed,
the Persians were prevailing over the Romans. The Muslims wanted the Romans to
prevail over them (the Persians), because they were both people who followed a
on that day, the believers will rejoice -- with the help of Allah. He helps whom
He wills, and He is the All-Mighty, the Most Merciful.
The Quraysh, on the other hand, wanted the Persians to prevail, because neither
of them were people who followed a Book and neither of them believed in the
Resurrection. When Allah revealed these Ayat,
Abu Bakr went out proclaiming throughout Makkah:
Lam Mim. The Romans have been defeated. In the nearest land, and they, after
their defeat, will be victorious. In Bid` years.
Some of the Quraysh said to Abu Bakr, `This is (a bet) between us and you. Your
companion claims that the Romans will defeat the Persians within three to nine
years, so why not have a bet on that between us and you.'
Abu Bakr said, `Yes.'
This was before betting had been forbidden. So, Abu Bakr and the idolators made
a bet, and they said to Abu Bakr:
`What do you think, Bid` means something
between three and nine years, so let us agree on the middle.'
So they agreed on six years.
Then six years passed without the Romans being victorious, so the idolators took
what they had bet with Abu Bakr. When the seventh year came and the Romans were
finally victorious over the Persians, the Muslims rebuked Abu Bakr for agreeing
on six years.
He said: `Because Allah said: "In Bid`
At that time, many people became Muslim.''
is how it was narrated by At-Tirmidhi, then he said, "this is a Hasan Hadith.''
Who were the Romans
We have already discussed the separate letters which appear at the beginning of
some Surahs in the beginning of our Tafsir of
Romans have been defeated.
With regard to the Romans (Ar-Rum), they are
the descendents of Al-`Iys bin Ishaq bin Ibrahim. They are the cousins of the
Children of Isra'il, and are also known as Bani Al-Asfar. They used to followed
the religion of the Greeks, who were descendents of Yafith bin Nuh, the cousins
of the Turks. They used to worship the seven planets, and they prayed facing the
direction of the North Pole. It is they who founded Damascus and built its
temple in which there is a prayer niche facing north.
The Romans followed this religion until approximately three hundred years after
the time of the Messiah.
The king who ruled Greater Syria along with the Fertile Crescent (semicircle of
fertile land from Syrian Desert to Persian Gulf) was called Caesar.
The first of them to enter the Christian religion was Constantine the son of
Costas, whose mother was Maryam Al-Hilaniyyah Ash-Shadqaniyyah, from the land of
Harran. She had become Christian before him, and she invited him to her
religion. Before that he had been a philosopher, then he followed her.
It was said that this was merely an outward show of belief. Then the Christians
met with him. During his time they debated with Abdullah bin Ariyus (Arius) and
great differences arose which could not be reconciled.
Then a gathering of three hundred and eighteen bishops reached an agreement, and
presented their creed to Constantine. This is what they call the Great Trust,
but in fact it is the Worst Betrayal. They presented to him their laws, i.e.,
books of rulings on what was lawful and prohibited, and other things that they
needed. They changed the religion of the Messiah
(peace be upon him), adding some things and taking some things away. They began
praying towards the East, and changed the Sabbath
(Saturday) rites to Sunday. They worshipped the cross, permitted eating of pigs,
adopted innovated observances such as the festival of the cross, Mass, baptism,
etc., Palm Sunday and other occasions. They appointed a pope, as their leader,
and patriarchs, metropolitans, bishops, priests and deacons, and they invented
The king built churches and places of worship for them, and he founded the city
which is named after him, Constantinople. It was said that during his time
twelve thousand churches were built, three places of prayer in Bethlehem, and
that his mother built the Church of the Holy Sepulcher. These are the ones who
followed the religion of the kings.
Then after them came the Jacobites, followers of Ya`qub Al-Askaf, then the
Nestorians, the followers of Nestorius. There are many groups and sects among
them, as the Messenger of Allah said:
The point here is that they continued to follow Christianity. Every time one
Caesar died, another succeeded him, until the last of them, Heraclius, came to
power. He was a wise man, one of the most astute and intelligent of kings, who
had deep insight and well-formed opinions. His was a great and glorious reign.
He was opposed by Chosroes, the king of Persia and of regions such as Iraq,
Khurasan, Ar-Riy and all the lands of the Persians. His name was Sabur
Dhul-Aktaf, and his kingdom was greater than the kingdom of Caesar. He was the
leader of the Persians and was as stubborn as the Persians who were Zoroastrian
How Caesar defeated Chosroes (Kisra)
It was previously reported that Ikrimah said: "Chosroes sent his deputy and his
army against Caesar, and they fought.''
It is well-known that Chosroes himself fought in the army that invaded his land,
and he defeated Caesar and overwhelmed him until he had nothing left except the
city of Constantinople, where Chosroes besieged him for a long time, until
things became very difficult for him. He was highly venerated among the
Christians, and Chosroes was not able to conquer the city because it was well
fortified, and half of it faced the land while the other half faced the sea,
from where supplies were able to reach them.
After this had gone on for a long time, Caesar thought of a clever trick. He
asked Chosroes to let him leave his city in return for money given as a
peace-offering, on whatever terms he (Chosroes) wanted. Chosroes agreed to that
and asked for a huge amount of wealth -- gold, jewels, fabric, servant-women,
servants, and much more -- such that no king on earth could ever pay.
Caesar went along with that and gave him the impression that he had all that he
had asked for, although he thought he was crazy for asking for such a thing,
because even if the two of them were to combine all of their wealth, it would
not amount to even one-tenth of that. He asked Chosroes to let him go out of the
city to Ash-Sham and the other regions of his kingdom, so that he could gather
that from his storehouses and places where his wealth was buried.
Chosroes let him go, and
when Caesar was about to leave Constantinople, he gathered his people together
and told them: "I am going out on a mission I have decided to do so with some
soldiers I have selected from my army; if I come back to you before one year
passes, I will still be your king but if I do not come back after that, you will
have the choice. Then, if you wish, you may remain loyal to me, or if you wish
you may appoint someone instead of me.
Thinking and pondering how Allah created various things in the upper and lower
realms and in the space between, realizing that this was not created in jest or
in vain, but in truth, and that it will continue until an appointed time, the
Day of Resurrection, as Allah says:
indeed many of mankind deny meeting with their Lord.
Then Allah tells us of the truth of the Message brought by the Messengers and
how He supported them with miracles and clear signs, such as when He destroyed
those who disbelieved in them and saved those who believed in them.
see what was the end of those before them! They were superior to them in
meaning, `the nations of the past who came before you were stronger than you to
whom Muhammad has been sent; they had more wealth and more sons. You have not
been given one-tenth of what they were given. They stayed longer in this world
than you will stay. They were more civilized than you and were more prosperous
in the land than you.' Yet despite all that, when their Messengers came to them
with clear signs, while they were enjoying their life of luxury, Allah punished
them for their sins and they had no one who could protect them from Allah. Their
wealth and sons could not protect them from the wrath of Allah in the slightest,
and Allah was not at all unjust towards them when He sent His punishment upon
them. It is as Allah says:
tilled the soil and populated it in greater numbers than these have done: there
came to them their apostles with Clear (Signs): it was not Allah Who wronged
them,but they used to wrong themselves.
They brought destruction upon themselves, when they rejected and mocked the
signs of Allah. All of this only happened because of their previous sins and
their rejection (of the Messengers).
And if they turn away,
then know that Allah's will is to punish them for some sins of theirs. (5:49)
It was said that the meaning of the phrase
ثُمَّ كَانَ عَاقِبَةَ الَّذِينَ أَسَاؤُوا السُّوأَى
(Then evil was the end of those who did evil), is that; evil was their
inevitable end, because they rejected the signs of Allah and made fun of them.
This is the view of Ibn Jarir, which he recorded from Ibn Abbas and Qatadah.
Abi Hatim also recorded it from them and from Ad-Dahhak bin Muzahim.
This is the apparent meaning -- and Allah knows best -- of the phrase:
وَكَانُوا بِهَا يَسْتَهْزِؤُون (and made a mockery of
glorify Allah, when you enter the evening, and when you enter the morning.
Here Allah glorifies Himself and commands His servants to glorify and praise Him
at these times which come one after the other and are indicative of His might
and power in the heavens. This is when the night comes with its darkness, then
in the morning the day comes with its light.
This glorification is followed by befitting praise, as Allah says:
brings out the living from the dead, and brings out the dead from the living.
This is what we see of His power to create things and their opposites.
These Ayat which come one after the other are
all of the same; in each of them Allah mentions the creation of things and their
opposites, to indicate to His creation the perfection of His power. Thus He
creates the plant from the seed and the seed from the plant; He creates the egg
from the chicken and the chicken from the egg; He creates man from sperm and
sperm from man; He creates the believer from the disbelievers and the
disbeliever from the believers.
among His signs is this that He created you from dust, --
which speak of His might and power, is the fact that He created your father Adam
out of dust.
... ثُمَّ إِذَا أَنتُم بَشَرٌ تَنتَشِرُونَ ﴿٢٠﴾
then -- behold you are human beings scattered!
So man's origins lie in dust, then in a despised liquid, then he is formed and
becomes a clot, then a lump of flesh, then bones in the form of a human being.
Then Allah clothes the bones with flesh. Then the soul is breathed into him and
he can hear and see. Then he comes forth from his mother's womb, small and weak,
but the longer he lives, the stronger he becomes, until he reaches the age where
he can build cities and strongholds, and he travels to different lands and
across the seas, earning a living and amassing wealth, and he is smart and
intelligent and crafty, with ideas and opinions of his own, and each one is able
to achieve great things in this world and in the Hereafter according to his
Glory be to the One Who has enabled them and made it easy for them to learn all
kinds of skills for earning a living, and has caused them to vary in their
levels of knowledge and intellectual ability, and in how handsome or ugly, rich
or poor they are, and in whether they are blessed and doomed.
Allah created Adam from a handful taken from throughout the
earth. Hence the sons of Adam vary as the earth varies, so they are white and
red and black and (colors) in between, evil and good, easy-going or difficult --
or something in between.''
was also recorded by Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi, who said, "This Hadith is Hasan
It is He Who has created
you from a single person, and He has created from him his wife, in order that he
might enjoy the pleasure of living with her. (7:189)
This refers to Hawwa'. Allah created her from
Adam, from the short rib on his left. If Allah had made all of Adam's progeny
male, and created the females from another kind, such as from Jinn or animals,
there would never have been harmony between them and their spouses. There would
have been revulsion if the spouses had been from a different kind.
... وَجَعَلَ بَيْنَكُم مَّوَدَّةً وَرَحْمَةً ...
He has put between you affection and mercy.
Out of Allah's perfect mercy He made their wives from their own kind, and
created love and kindness between them. For a man stays with a woman because he
loves her, or because he feels compassion towards her if they have a child
together, or because she needs him to take care of her, etc.
So, we see that some speak Arabic, and the Tatars have their own language, as do
the Georgians, Romans, Franks, Berbers, Tou Couleurs (of Sudan), Ethiopians,
Indians, Persians, Slavs, Khazars, Armenians, Kurds and others. Only Allah knows
the variety of languages spoken among the sons of Adam.
And the difference of their colors mentioned here refers to their appearance,
for all the people of this world, from the time that Allah created Adam, and
until the Hour begins, each of them has two eyes, two eyebrows, a nose, a
forehead, a mouth and two cheeks, but none of them looks like another; there is
bound to be some difference in posture, appearance and speech, whether it is
apparent or is hidden and can only be noticed with careful observation. Each
face has its own characteristics and does not look like another; even if there
was a group of people who looked alike, having a beautiful or ugly
characteristic in common, there would still be a difference between one person
and the next.
among His signs is your sleep by night and by day, and your seeking of His
Among His signs is the cycle of sleep that He has created during the night and
the day, when people are able to cease moving and rest, so that their tiredness
and exhaustion will go away. And He has enabled you to seek to earn a living and
to travel about during the day, this is the opposite of sleep.
Verily, Allah grasps the
heavens and the earth lest they should move away from their places. (35:41)
Whenever Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, swore an emphatic
oath, he would say,
"No, by the One by Whose command the heaven and the earth stand,''
i.e., they stand firm by His command to them and His subjugation of them. Then,
when the Day of Resurrection comes, the Day when the earth will be exchanged
with another earth and the dead will come forth from their graves, brought back
to life by His command and His call to them,
This is the parable Allah makes of the idolators, those who worship others
besides Him and attribute partners to Him, while at the same time admitting that
these so-called partners -- idols and false gods -- are enslaved to and belong
In their Talbiyah (during Hajj and
Umrah they used to say, "At Your service, You
have no partner except the partner that You have, You own Him and whatever he
set you your face towards the religion as a Hanif. Allah's Fitrah with which He
has created mankind.
`so set your face and persevere in the religion which Allah has prescribed for
you, the worship of Allah Alone, the religion of Ibrahim, to which Allah has
guided you and which He has perfected for you with the utmost perfection. In
this manner, you will also adhere to the sound
Fitrah with which He created His creation.'
Allah created His creation to recognize Him and know His
Tawhid, and that there is no God except Him,
as we have already seen when discussing the Ayah,
"I created my servants Hunafa (i.e., monotheists), then the
Shayatin misled them from their religion.''
We will see in the Hadiths that Allah created
His creation with the Fitrah of Islam, then
among some of them there emerged corrupt religions such as Judaism, Christianity
... لَا تَبْدِيلَ لِخَلْقِ اللَّهِ ...
change let there be in Allah's Khalq,
Some of them said that this means, `do not change the creation of Allah, for if
you do, you will divert the people away from the
Fitrah with which He created them.'
So it is instructive; just as His saying,
وَمَن دَخَلَهُ كَانَ آمِنًا And whoever enters it,
he is safe (3:97)
This is a good and correct interpretation. Others said that this means, Allah
made all of His creation equal, all of them have the same sound
Fitrah and are by nature upright; they are
all born with this nature and there is no disparity among people in this regard.
Ibn Abbas, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Mujahid, Ikrimah, Qatadah,
Ad-Dahhak and Ibn Zayd said that the Ayah:
لَا تَبْدِيلَ لِخَلْقِ اللَّه (No change let
there be in Allah's Khalq),
means, the religion of Allah.
Al-Bukhari said: لَا تَبْدِيلَ لِخَلْقِ اللَّه
(No change let there be in Allah's Khalq),
"It means, the religion of Allah, and the religion, and the
Fitrah is Islam.''
Then he reported that Abu Hurayrah said, "The Messenger of Allah said:
No child is born except in a state of Fitrah, then his parents
make him a Jew or a Christian or a Zoroastrian, just as each animal produces a
perfect animal like itself -- do you see any among them that are born mutilated?
then the narrator (Abu Hurayrah) said (recite this
Ayah), فَطَرَ النَّاسَ عَلَيْهَا لَا تَبْدِيلَ لِخَلْقِ اللَّهِ ذَلِكَ
Allah's Fitrah with which He has created
mankind. No change let there be in Allah's Khalq,
that is the straight religion.''
was also recorded by Muslim.
... ذَلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ ...
is the straight religion,
means, adherence to the Shariah and the sound
Fitrah is the true, straight religion.
Verily, those who divide
their religion and break up into sects, you have no concern in them in the
least. Their affair is only with Allah. (6:159)
The followers of the religions before us had differences of opinions and split
into false sects, each group claiming to be following the truth. This
Ummah too has split into sects, all of which
are misguided apart from one, which is Ahlus-Sunnah
Wal-Jama`ah, those who adhere to the Book of Allah and the
Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah and what was
followed by the first generations, the Companions, their followers, and the
Imams of the Muslims of earlier and later
In his Mustadrak, Al-Hakim recorded that the Messenger of Allah was asked which
of the sects was the saved sect and he said:
when harm touches men, they cry sincerely only to their Lord, turning to Him in
repentance; but when He gives them a taste of His mercy, behold, a party of them
associates partners in worship with their Lord.
Allah tells us that when man is in dire straits, he calls upon Allah alone with
no partner or associate, then when times of ease come and they have the choice,
some people associate others with Allah and worship others alongside Him.
as to be ungrateful for the graces which We have bestowed on them. Then enjoy;
Then Allah warns them by saying:
... فَسَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ
you will come to know.
One of them said: By Allah, if a law enforcement officer were to say this to me,
I would be afraid, so how about when the One Who is issuing the warning is the
One Who merely says to a thing "Be!'' and it is.
Then Allah denounces the idolators for fabricating lies and worshipping others
instead of Him with no evidence or proof:
How wonderful is the affair of the believer. Allah does not
decree anything for him but it is good for him. If good things happen to him, he
gives thanks, and that is good for him; and if bad things happen to him, he
bears that with patience, and that is good for him.
And that which you give in Riba in order that it may increase
from other people's property, has no increase with Allah; but that
which you give in Zakah seeking Allah's Face, then those they shall
have manifold increase.
gives in charity the equivalent of a date which was earned in a lawful manner,
but the Most Merciful takes it in His Right Hand and takes care of it for its
owner, just as any one of you takes care of his foal or young camel, until the
date becomes the size of Mount Uhud.
Creation, Provision, Life and Death
are all in the Hand of Allah
Allah is He Who created you, then provided food for you,
means, He is the Creator and Provider.
He brings man forth from his mother's womb naked and knowing nothing, not able
to see or hear, and having no strength. Then He provides him with all these
things, giving him household effects, clothing, wealth, possessions and
... ثُمَّ يُمِيتُكُمْ ...
will cause you to die,
means, after this life.
... ثُمَّ يُحْيِيكُمْ ...
(again) He will give you life.
means, on the Day of Resurrection.
... هَلْ مِن شُرَكَائِكُم ...
there any of your partners,
means, those whom you worship instead of Allah,
... مَّن يَفْعَلُ مِن ذَلِكُم مِّن شَيْءٍ ...
do anything of that,
meaning, none of them are able to do any of that. But Allah is the One Who is
Independent in His powers of creation, provision, and giving life and death.
Then He will resurrect His creation on the Day of Resurrection. This is why,
after all this He says:
Glory be to Him! And Exalted be He above all that they associate.
meaning, exalted and
sanctified and glorified be He far above having any partner, peer, equal, son or
father, for He is the One, the Unique, the Self-Sufficient Master, Who begets
not nor was He begotten, and there is none comparable unto Him.
has appeared in Al-Barr and Al-Bahr because of what the hands of men have
Ibn Abbas, Ikrimah, Ad-Dahhak, As-Suddi and others said:
"What is meant by Al-Barr here is the empty
land or wilderness, and by Al-Bahr is towns
According to a report narrated from Ibn Abbas and Ikrimah,
refers to towns and cities which are on the banks of rivers.
Others said that what was meant was the usual meaning of the words, i.e., land
Zayd bin Rafi` said: ظَهَرَ الْفَسَادُ
(Evil has appeared),
"The rain is withheld from the land and this is followed by famine, and it is
withheld from the sea, adversely affecting the animals which live in it.''
This was recorded by Ibn Abi Hatim, who said: "Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Yazid
Al-Muqri' told us, from Sufyan from Humayd bin Qays Al-A`raj from Mujahid:
ظَهَرَ الْفَسَادُ فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ
(Evil has appeared on land and sea),
"Evil on land means the killing of the son of Adam, and evil on the sea means
According to the first opinion, the phrase,
ظَهَرَ الْفَسَادُ فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ أَيْدِي النَّاسِ
means the shortfall in the crops and fruits is because of sins.
Abu Al-Aliyah said:
"Whoever disobeys Allah in the earth has corrupted it, because the good
condition of the earth and the heavens depends on obedience to Allah.''
Hence it says in the Hadith which was
recorded by Abu Dawud:
Any prescribed punishment which is carried out in the land is
better for its people than if it were to rain for forty days.
The reason for that is that if the prescribed punishments are carried out, this
will deter the people -- most or many of them -- from violating the prohibitions
If they give up sin, this will be a cause of blessings in the skies and on the
earth. So, when `Isa bin Maryam, peace be upon him, comes down at the end of
time, he will judge according to this Shariah
at that time, and will kill the pigs and break the cross and abolish the
Jizyah. He will accept nothing except Islam
or the sword. When Allah destroys the Dajjal
and his followers, and Ya'juj and
Ma'juj during his time, it will be said to
the earth, bring forth your blessing. Then groups of people will eat from one
pomegranate, and will seek shade beneath its skin, and the milk of one pregnant
camel will be sufficient for a group of people.
This will only be because of the blessings that will result from application of
the Shariah of Muhammad. The more justice is
established, the more the blessings and good things will increase. It was
reported in the Sahih:
And among His signs is this that He sends the winds as glad
tidings, giving you a taste of His mercy, and that the ships may
sail at His command, and that you may seek of His bounty, in order
that you may be thankful.
indeed We did send Messengers before you to their own peoples. They came to them
with clear proofs, then, We took vengeance on those who committed crimes;
These are words of consolation from Allah to His servant and Messenger Muhammad.
They tell him that if many of his people and of mankind disbelieve in him, the
previous Messengers were also rejected, despite the clear signs that they
brought, but Allah punished those who rejected and opposed them, and saved those
who believed in them.
Allah is He Who sends the winds, so that they raise clouds,
either from the
sea, as was mentioned by more than one (of the scholars), or from whatever Allah
... فَيَبْسُطُهُ فِي السَّمَاء كَيْفَ
spread them along the sky as He wills,
means, He spreads
them and causes them to increase and grow. From a little He makes a lot, and
creates the clouds that look like shields. Then He spreads them out until they
fill the horizon. Sometimes the clouds come from the sea, heavy and full, as
verily, before that -- just before it was sent down upon them -- they were in
The people to whom this rain came were in despair, thinking that it rain would
never fall, just before it came to them. When it came to them, it came at the
time of greatest need, so it was a tremendous event for them.
What this means is that they were in need of it before it fell, and there had
been no rainfall for a long time, so they were waiting for it at the time when
it was due, but it did not come to them at that time. The rain was late, and a
long time passed. Then the rain came to them suddenly, after they began to
despair, and after their land became dry and barren, it was stirred to life, and
it swelled and produced every lovely kind of growth.
if We send a wind, and they see it turn yellow -- behold, they then would become
if We send a wind,
means, a wind which dries up the crops which they have tended and cultivated and
which have matured, and they see them turn yellow, and start to rot, if this
were to happen, they would become ungrateful, i.e., they would deny the previous
blessings that they were given.
This is like the Ayah,
أَفَرَءَيْتُم مَّا تَحْرُثُونَ
Then tell Me about the
seed that you sow in the ground. until:
you cannot guide the blind from their straying;
Allah says, `just as you are not able to make the dead hear in their graves, or
to make your words reach the deaf who cannot hear and who still turn away from
you, so too you cannot guide the blind to the truth and bring them back from
That is a matter which rests with Allah, for by His power He can make the dead
hear the voices of the living if He wills. He guides whom He wills and sends
astray whom He wills, and no one but He has the power to do this.
can make to hear only those who believe in Our Ayat, and have submitted (to
Allah in Islam).
means, those who are humble and who respond and obey. These are the ones who
will listen to the truth and follow it; this is the state of the believers; the
former (being deaf and blind) is the state of the disbelievers, as Allah says:
It is only those who
listen will respond, but as for the dead, Allah will raise them up, then to Him
they will be returned. (6:36)
A'ishah, the Mother of the faithful, may Allah be pleased with her, used this
إِنَّكَ لَا تُسْمِعُ الْمَوْتَى (So verily, you cannot make the dead
to hear), as evidence against Abdullah bin Umar when he reported that the
Prophet had addressed the slain disbelievers who had been thrown into a dry well
three days after the battle of Badr, rebuking
and reprimanding them, until Umar said, "O Messenger of Allah, are you
addressing people who are dead bodies?''
Allah is He Who created you in weakness, then gave you strength after weakness,
Here Allah points out how man passes through different stages of creation, one
phase after another.
He is originally created from dust, then from a
Nutfah, then from a clot, then from a lump of flesh. Then he becomes
bones, then the bones are clothed with flesh, then the soul is breathed into
him. Then he emerges from his mother's womb, weak and thin and powerless.
Then he grows up little by little, until he becomes a child, then he reaches the
stage of puberty, then he becomes a young man, which is strength after weakness.
Then he starts to get older, reaching middle age, then old age and senility,
weakness after strength, so he loses his resolve, power of movement and ability
to fight, his hair turns grey and his characteristics, both inward and outward,
begin to change.
And those who have been bestowed with knowledge and Faith will
say: "Indeed you have stayed according to the decree of Allah, until
the Day of Resurrection; so this is the Day of Resurrection, but you
on the Day that the Hour will be established, the criminals will swear that they
stayed not but an hour --
Here Allah tells us of the ignorance of the disbelievers in this world and in
the Hereafter. In this world they worship idols, and in the Hereafter they will
also display great ignorance. They will swear by Allah that they did not even
stay for one hour in this world. They will mean that there was not enough time
given to establish proof against them which would leave them with no excuse.
those who have been bestowed with knowledge and Faith will say: "Indeed you have
stayed according to the decree of Allah, until the Day of Resurrection...''
The believers who have knowledge of the Hereafter will respond to them, just as
they established the proof of Allah against them in this world. When they swear
that they did not stay even one hour in this world, they will say to them:
... لَقَدْ لَبِثْتُمْ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ ...
Indeed you have stayed according to the decree of Allah,
meaning, the Book of deeds,
... إِلَى يَوْمِ الْبَعْثِ ...
until the Day of Resurrection;
means, `from the day when you were created until the day you were resurrected. '
And indeed We have set forth for mankind, in this Qur'an every
kind of parable. But if you bring to them any sign or proof, the
disbelievers are sure to say (to the believers): "You follow nothing
but falsehood and magic.''
if you bring to them any sign or proof, the disbelievers are sure to say (to the
believers): "You follow nothing but falsehood and magic.''
If they were to see any kind of sign, whether it was at their own direction or
otherwise, they would not believe in it and they would think that it was magic
and falsehood, as they said when the moon was cleft asunder, etc., as Allah
meaning, `bear their stubborn opposition with patience, for Allah will fulfill
His promise to grant you victory over them and cause you and those who follow
you to prevail in this world and in the Hereafter.'
let not those who have no certainty of faith discourage you (from conveying
`Remain steadfast in the mission with which Allah has sent you, for it is truth
in which there is no doubt. Do not turn away from it, for nowhere else is there
truth which is to be followed; the truth rests exclusively in the Message with
which you have been sent.'
Reports concerning the Virtues of
this Surah and that it is recommended to recite it during Fajr
Imam Ahmad recorded from a man among the Companions of the Prophet that the
Messenger of Allah led them in Fajr prayer
and recited Ar-Rum in the prayer, but he
became confused in his recitation. He said:
We have become confused in our recitation of Qur'an, because some
people among you are praying with us but they have not performed Wudu' properly.
Whoever attends the prayer with us, let him perform Wudu' properly.
has a Hasan chain of narration, the text itself is Hasan.
It contains amazing information, that the Prophet was affected by the faulty
Wudu' of some of those whom he was leading in
prayer. This indicates that the prayer of the person who is praying in the
congregation is connected to the prayer of the Imam.