Those who perform the Salah and give Zakah and they have faith in the Hereafter
Allah has made the Qur'an guidance and healing and a mercy for the
Muhsinin, who are those who do good deeds in
accordance with the Shariah. They establish
the obligatory prayers in the proper manner and at the correct times, and follow
that with regular, optional and supererogatory prayers; they pay the
Zakah to those who deserve it; they uphold
the ties of kinship with their relatives; they have certain faith that there
will be rewards and punishments in the Hereafter, and they seek the reward with
Allah; they do not show off or seek a reward or thanks from other people.
Whoever does this is one of those of whom Allah says:
Allah has sent down the
Best Statement, a Book, its parts resembling each other (and) oft-repeated. The
skins of those who fear their Lord shiver from it. Then their skin and their
heart soften to the remembrance of Allah. (39:23)
He connect that with mention of the doomed, those who turn away from the Qur'an
and do not benefit from hearing the Words of Allah. Instead, they turn to
listening to flutes and singing accompanied by musical instruments.
As Ibn Mas`ud commented about the Ayah
وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَشْتَرِي لَهْوَ الْحَدِيثِ لِيُضِلَّ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِhe
said, "This -- by Allah -- refers to singing.''
of mankind is he who purchases Lahw Al-Hadith to mislead (men) from the path of
Allah without knowledge,
"By Allah, he may not spend money on it, but his purchasing it means he likes
it, and the more misguided he is, the more he likes it and the more he prefers
falsehood to the truth and harmful things over beneficial things.''
It was said that what is meant by the words
يَشْتَرِي لَهْوَ الْحَدِيث (purchases idle talks) is buying
singing servant girls.
Ibn Jarir said that it means all speech that hinders people from seeing the
signs of Allah and following His path.
His saying: لِيُضِلَّ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّه
(to mislead (men) from the path of Allah) means, he does this to oppose Islam
and its followers.
... وَيَتَّخِذَهَا هُزُوًا ...
takes it by way of mockery.
Mujahid said, "This means mocking the path of Allah and making fun of it.''
... أُولَئِكَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ مُّهِينٌ
such there will be a humiliating torment.
Just as they showed no respect to the signs and path of Allah, so they will be
shown no respect on the Day of Resurrection, and they will be subjected to a
painful, ongoing torment.
when Our Ayat are recited to such a one, he turns away in pride, as if he heard
them not -- as if there were deafness in his ear.
means, when these Qur'anic verses are recited to one who is fond of idleness and
play, he turns away from them and does not want to hear them. He turns a deaf
ear to them as if he can hear nothing, because it annoys him to hear them since
he gains no benefit from them and has no interest in them.
... فَبَشِّرْهُ بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ
announce to him a painful torment.
i.e., on the Day of
Resurrection, which will hurt him just as much as listening to the Book of Allah
and its verses hurt him.
means, there they will enjoy all kinds of delights and pleasures, food, drink,
clothing, dwelling-places, means of transportation, women, a light of beauty and
delightful sounds, which have never crossed the mind of any human being. They
will stay there forever, never leaving and never desiring change.
... وَعْدَ اللَّهِ حَقًّا ...
is a promise of Allah in truth.
meaning, this will undoubtedly come to pass, for it is a promise from Allah, and
Allah never breaks His promise, because He is the Most Generous Bestower Who
does what He wills and is able to do all things.
... وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ ...
He is the All-Mighty,
Who has subjugated all things and to Whom all things submit,
... الْحَكِيمُ ﴿٩﴾
in what He says and what He does, Who has made this Qur'an a guidance to the
means, all that Allah has mentioned here of the creation of the heavens and
earth and everything in between stems from His power of creation and control
alone, and He has no partner or associate in that,
The Salaf differed over the identity of
Luqman; there are two opinions:
-was he a Prophet
-or just a righteous
servant of Allah without the Prophethood.
The majority favored the latter view, that he was a righteous servant of Allah
without being a Prophet.
Sufyan Ath-Thawri said, narrating from Al-Ash`ath, from Ikrimah, from Ibn Abbas,
"Luqman was an Ethiopian slave who was a carpenter.
Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr said, "I said to Jabir bin Abdullah: `What did you hear
He said: `He was short with a flat nose, and came from Nubia.'''
Yahya bin Sa`id Al-Ansari narrated from Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib that "Luqman was
from the black peoples of (southern) Egypt, and had thick lips. Allah gave him
wisdom but withheld Prophethood from him.''
Al-Awza`i said, "Abdur-Rahman bin Harmalah told me; `A black man came to Sa`id
bin Al-Musayyib to ask him a question, and Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib said to him:
"Do not be upset because you are black, for among the best of people were three
who were black:
-the freed slave of
Umar bin Al-Khattab,
-and Luqman the
Wise, who was a black Nubian with thick lips.''
Ibn Jarir recorded that Khalid Ar-Raba`i said:
"Luqman was an Ethiopian slave who was a carpenter. His master said to him,
`Slaughter this sheep for us,' so he slaughtered it.
master) said: `Bring the best two pieces from it,' so he brought out the tongue
and the heart.
time passed, as much as Allah willed, and (his master) said: `Slaughter this
sheep for us,' so he slaughtered it.
master) said, `Bring the worst two morsels from it,' so he brought out the
tongue and the heart.
master said to him, `I told you to bring out the best two pieces, and you
brought these, then I told you to bring out the worst two pieces, and you
`There is nothing better than these if they are good, and there is nothing worse
than these if they are bad.'''
Shu`bah narrated from Al-Hakam, from Mujahid, "Luqman was a righteous servant,
but he was not a Prophet.''
when Luqman said to his son when he was advising him: "O my son! Join not in
worship others with Allah.
Allah tells us how Luqman advised his son. His full name was Luqman bin `Anqa'
bin Sadun, and his son's name was Tharan, according to a saying quoted by As-Suhayli.
Allah describes him in the best terms, and states that he granted him wisdom.
Luqman advised his son, the closest and most beloved of all people to him, who
deserved to be given the best of his knowledge. So, Luqman started by advising
him to worship Allah Alone, and not to associate anything with Him.
Then he warned him:
... إِنَّ الشِّرْكَ لَظُلْمٌ عَظِيمٌ
Verily, joining others in worship with Allah is a great Zulm (wrong) indeed.
meaning, it is the greatest wrong.
Al-Bukhari recorded that Abdullah said:
"When the Ayah
الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ وَلَمْ يَلْبِسُواْ إِيمَانَهُم بِظُلْمٍ
(It is those who believe and confuse not their belief with
Zulm) (6:82) was revealed, the Companions of
the Messenger of Allah were distressed by this, and said, `Who among us does not
confuse his belief with Zulm!'
The Messenger of Allah said:
That is not what it means. Have you not heard what Luqman said:
يَا بُنَيَّ لَا تُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ إِنَّ الشِّرْكَ لَظُلْمٌ عَظِيمٌ (O my son! Join not in worship others with Allah. Verily,
joining others in worship with Allah is a great Zulm (wrong) indeed)''
was recorded by Muslim.
When Luqman advised his son to worship Allah Alone, he also told him to honor
his parents. This is like the Ayah,
if they strive with you to make you join in worship with Me others that of which
you have no knowledge, then obey them not;
means, if they try hard to make you follow them in their religion, then do not
accept that from them, but do not let that stop you from behaving with them in
the world kindly, i.e. treating them with respect.
... وَصَاحِبْهُمَا فِي الدُّنْيَا مَعْرُوفًا ...
behave with them in the world kindly,
... وَاتَّبِعْ سَبِيلَ مَنْ أَنَابَ إِلَيَّ ...
follow the path of him who turns to Me in repentance and in obedience.
to Me will be your return, and I shall tell you what you used to do.
At-Tabarani recorded in Al-Ishrah that Sa`d bin Malik said,
وَإِن جَاهَدَاكَ عَلى أَن تُشْرِكَ بِي مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ فَلَا
if they strive with you to make you join in worship with Me others that of which
you have no knowledge, then obey them not;) was revealed concerning me.
was a man who honored his mother, but when I became Muslim, she said:
Sa`d! What is this new thing I see you doing Leave this religion of yours, or I
will not eat or drink until I die, and people will say: Shame on you, for what
you have done to me, and they will say that you have killed your mother.'
said, `Do not do that, O mother, for I will not give up this religion of mine
stayed without eating for one day and one night, and she became exhausted; then
she stayed for another day and night without eating, and she became utterly
I saw that, I said: `O my mother, by Allah, even if you had one hundred souls
and they were to depart one by one, I would not give up this religion of mine
for anything, so if you want to, eat, and if you want to, do not eat.'
though it be in a rock, or in the heavens or on the earth, Allah will bring it
... يَأْتِ بِهَا اللَّهُ ...
Allah will bring it forth.
means, He will bring it forth on the Day of Resurrection, when it is placed in
the Scales of justice and everyone is rewarded or punished for his actions -- if
they are good, he will be rewarded and if they are bad he will be punished.
So, whosoever does good
equal to the weight of a speck of dust shall see it. And whosoever does evil
equal to the weight of a speck of dust shall see it. (99:7-8)
Even if this tiny thing were to be hidden inside a solid rock or anywhere in the
heavens and the earth, Allah will bring it forth, because nothing is hidden from
Him, not even the weight of a speck of dust in the heavens or on the earth.
... إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَطِيفٌ خَبِيرٌ
Verily, Allah is Subtle, Well-Aware.
meaning, His knowledge is subtle, for nothing is hidden from Him, no matter how
small, subtle and minute.
(Well-Aware), even of the footsteps of an ant in the darkest night.
means, `do not turn your face away from people when you speak to them or they
speak to you, looking down on them in an arrogant fashion. Rather be gentle
towards them and greet them with a cheerful face,' as it says in the
... even if it is only by greeting your brother with a cheerful
countenance. And beware of letting your lower garment trail below your ankles,
for this is a kind of boasting, and Allah does not like boasting.
... وَلَا تَمْشِ فِي
الْأَرْضِ مَرَحًا ...
walk in insolence through the earth.
means, `do not be boastful, arrogant, proud and stubborn. Do not do that, for
Allah will hate you.'
Verily, the harshest of all voices is the braying of the asses.
Mujahid and others said,
"The most ugly of voices is the voice of the donkey, i.e., when a person raises
his voice, the resulting noise is like the voice of a donkey in its loudness.
Moreover this is hateful to Allah. Likening a loud voice to that of a donkey
implies that it is forbidden and extremely blameworthy, because the Messenger of
It is not befitting us to be an evil parable. The person who
takes back his gift, he is like a dog that vomits and then goes back to his
Advice of Luqman
This is very useful advice, which the Qur'an tells us about Luqman. Many other
proverbs and words of advice were also narrated from him, some examples of which
we will quote below, as basic principles:
Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn Umar said, "The Messenger of Allah said:
Luqman the Wise used to say: when something is entrusted to the
care of Allah, He protects it.
It was narrated that As-Sari bin Yahya said:
"Luqman said to his son: `Wisdom puts the poor in the company of kings.'''
It was also narrated that Awn bin Abdullah said:
"Luqman said to his son:
`O my son! When you come to a gathering of people, greet them with
Salam, then sit at the edge of the group, and
do not speak until you see that they have finished speaking. Then if they
remember Allah, join them, but if they speak of anything else, then leave them
and go to another group'.''
And when it is said to them: "Follow that which Allah has sent
down,'' they say: "Nay, we shall follow that which we found our
fathers (following).'' Even if Shaytan invites them to the torment
of the Fire!
you not that Allah has subjected for you whatsoever is in the heavens and
whatsoever is on the earth, and has completed and perfected His graces upon you,
apparent and hidden!
Allah reminds His creation of the blessings He bestows upon them in this world
and the Hereafter. In the heavens He has subjugated for them the stars which
give them light during the night and during the day, and He has created clouds,
rain, snow and hail, and made the heavens a canopy which covers and protects
them. On earth He has created for them stability and rivers, trees, crops and
fruits; He has completed and perfected His graces upon them, apparent and
hidden, by sending Messengers, revealing Books and removing doubts and excuses.
of mankind is he who disputes about Allah without knowledge or guidance or a
Book giving light!
Yet despite all this, not all the people believe, and indeed there are those who
dispute concerning Allah, that is, His Tawhid, and His sending the Messengers.
Their dispute is without knowledge and they have no sound evidence or valid
whoever disbelieves, let not his disbelief grieve you.
means, `do not grieve over them, O Muhammad, because they disbelieve in Allah
and in the Message you have brought, for their return will be to Allah and He
will tell them what they used to do,' i.e., He will punish them for it.
Allah tells us that these idolators who associated others with Him admitted that
Allah Alone, with no partner or associate, is the Creator of heaven and earth
yet they still worshipped others besides Him who they recognized were created by
Him and subjugated to Him.
Allah tells us of His might, pride, majesty, beautiful Names and sublime
attributes, and His perfect Words which no one can encompass. No human being
knows their essence or nature, or how many they are. As the Leader of Mankind
and Seal of the Messengers said:
if all the trees on the earth were pens and the sea, with seven seas behind it
to add to its, yet the Words of Allah would not be exhausted.
meaning, even if all the trees on earth were made into pens and the sea was made
into ink, and topped up with seven more like it, and they were used to write the
Words of Allah showing His might, attributes and majesty, the pens would break
and the ink would run dry, even if more were brought.
The number seven is used to indicate a large amount, it is not to be taken
literally or to be understood as referring to the seven oceans of the world, as
was suggested by those who took this idea from Israelite stories, which we
neither believe nor reject.
Say: "If the sea were
ink for the Words of my Lord, surely, the sea would be exhausted before the
Words of my Lord would be finished, even if We brought like it for its aid.''
The words بِمِثْلِهِ
(like it) do not mean merely another one, but another like it and another and
another and another, etc., because there is no limit to the signs and Words of
... إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
Verily, Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise.
means, He is All-Mighty and has subjugated all things to His will, so nothing
can prevent what He wills, and none can oppose or put back His decision. He is
All-Wise in His creation, commands, Words, actions, Laws and all His affairs.
But it will be only a
single Zajrah. When behold, they find themselves on the surface of the earth
alive after their death. (79:13-14)
... إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ بَصِيرٌ ﴿٢٨﴾
Verily, Allah is All-Hearer, All-Seer.
means, just as He hears
all that they say, so He also sees all that they do, as if He is hearing and
seeing a single soul. His power over all of them is like His power over a single
soul, Allah says:
مَّا خَلْقُكُمْ وَلَا بَعْثُكُمْ إِلَّا كَنَفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ
(The creation of you all and the resurrection of you all are only as a single
you not that Allah merges the night into the day, and merges the day into the
meaning, He takes from the night and adds to the day, so that the day becomes
longer and the night shorter, which is what happens in summer when the days are
longest; then the day starts to become shorter and the night longer, which is
what happens in winter.
is because Allah, He is the Truth, and that which they invoke besides Him is
means, He shows you His Signs so that you may know from them that He is the
Truth, i.e., He truly exists and is truly divine, and that all else besides Him
is falsehood. He has no need of anything else, but everything else is dependent
on Him, because everything in heaven and on earth is created by Him and is
enslaved by Him; none of them could move even an atom's weight except with His
permission. If all the people of heaven and earth were to come together to
create a fly, they would not be able to do so.
mankind! Have Taqwa of your Lord, and fear a Day when,
Here Allah warns people about the Day of Resurrection, and commands them to fear
Him and remember the Day of Resurrection when
... لَّا يَجْزِي وَالِدٌ عَن وَلَدِهِ ...
father can avail aught for his son,
which means, even if he wanted to offer himself as a sacrifice for his son, it
would not be accepted from him. The same will apply in the case of a son who
wants to sacrifice himself for his father -- it will not be accepted from him.
makes promises to them, and arouses in them false desires; and Shaytan's
promises are nothing but deceptions. (4:120)
Wahb bin Munabbih said:
`Uzayr, peace be upon him, said: "When I saw the misfortune of my people, I felt
very sad and distressed, and I could not sleep, so I prayed to my Lord and
fasted, and I called upon Him weeping. There came to me an angel and I said to
him: `Tell me, will the souls of the righteous intercede for the wrongdoers, or
the fathers for their sons?'
He said: `On the Day of Resurrection all matters will be settled, and Allah's
dominion will be made manifest and no exceptions will be made. No one will speak
on that Day except with the permission of the Most Merciful. No father will
answer for his son, or any son for his father, or any man for his brother, or
any servant for his master. No one will care about anybody except himself, or
feel grief or compassion for anyone except himself. Everyone will be worried
only about himself. No one will be asked about anybody else. Each person will be
concerned only about himself, weeping for himself and carrying his own burden.
No one will carry the burden of another.'''
Verily, Allah, with Him is the knowledge of the Hour, He sends down the rain,
and knows that which is in the wombs. No person knows what he will earn
The Knower of the Unseen is Allah. These are the keys of the Unseen, whose
knowledge Allah alone has kept for Himself, and no one else knows them unless
Allah tells him about them. The knowledge of `when the Hour will occur' is not
known to any Prophet who was sent or any angel who is close to Allah.
لاَ يُجَلِّيهَا لِوَقْتِهَآ إِلاَّ هُوَ
None can reveal its time
but He. (7:187)
Similarly, no one but Allah knows when rain will fall, but when He issues the
commands, the angels who are entrusted with the task of bringing rain know about
it, as do those among His creation whom He wills should know.
No one but He knows what is in the wombs of what He wants to create, but when He
decrees whether it is to be male or female, and whether it is to be blessed or
doomed, the angels who are entrusted with that know about it, as do those among
His creation whom He wills should know.
That was Jibril who came to teach the people their religion.
It was also recorded by Al-Bukhari in the Book of Faith, and by Muslim with
several chains of narration.
We have discussed this at the beginning of our commentary on Al-Bukhari, where
we mentioned at length some Hadiths narrated
by the Commander of the faithful Umar bin Al-Khattab. These were recorded only