Whatever of mercy, Allah may grant to mankind, none can withhold
it; and whatever He may withhold, none can grant it thereafter. And He is the
Almighty, the All-Wise.
Allah tells us that what He wills, happens, and what He does not will, does not
happen. None can give what He withholds, and none can withhold what He gives.
Imam Ahmad recorded that Warrad, the freed slave of Al-Mughirah bin Shu`bah,
said, "Mu`awiyah wrote to Al-Mughirah bin Shu`bah, saying, `Write for me what
you heard from the Messenger of Allah.' So Al-Mughirah called me and I wrote for
`I heard the Messenger of Allah say when he finished praying,
mankind! Remember the grace of Allah upon you! Is there any creator other than
Allah who provides for you from the sky (rain) and the earth!
Allah shows His servants that they should worship Him Alone, for just as He is
Independent in His power of creation and provision, so He should be worshipped
Alone with no partners or associates such as idols and false gods.
if they deny you, so were Messengers denied before you.
Allah says: `Even if these idolators who associate others with Allah disbelieve
in you, O Muhammad, and go against the Message of
Tawhid that you have brought, you have an example in the Messengers who
came before you.'
They also brought a clear Message to their people and told them to worship Allah
alone, but their people denied them and went against them.
means, `this life is as nothing in compare to the great good that Allah has
promised to His close friends and the followers of His Messengers, so do not let
these transient attractions distract you from that which is lasting.'
... وَلَا يَغُرَّنَّكُم بِاللَّهِ الْغَرُورُ ﴿٥﴾
let not the chief deceiver deceive you about Allah.
This refers to Shaytan, as stated by Ibn
Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him.
Meaning, do not let the Shaytan tempt you and
divert you away from following the Messengers of Allah and believing what they
say, for he is the chief deceiver and arch-liar.
This Ayah is like the
Ayah that appears at the end of Surah
only invites his followers that they may become the dwellers of the blazing
means, `he only wants to misguide you so that you will enter the blazing Fire
This is a manifest enemy, and we ask Allah, the All-Powerful and Almighty to
make us enemies of Shaytan and to make us
followers of the Book of Allah and of the way of His Messengers. For He is able
to do whatever He wills and He will respond to all supplication.
And (remember) when We
said to the angels: "Prostrate yourselves unto Adam.''
So they prostrated
themselves except Iblis.
He was one of the Jinn; he disobeyed the command of his Lord. Will you then take
him (Iblis) and his offspring as protectors and helpers rather than Me while
they are enemies to you? What an evil is the exchange for the wrongdoers.
Those who disbelieve, theirs will be a severe torment;
Having stated that the ultimate destiny of the followers of Iblis will be the
blazing Fire, Allah then tells us that for those who disbelieve there will be a
severe punishment. This is because they obeyed the
Shaytan and disobeyed Ar-Rahman.
... وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ...
those who believe
And He tells us that those who believed in Allah and His Messengers
he, then, to whom the evil of his deeds is made fair seeming, so that he
considers it as good!
meaning, `such as disbelievers or immoral persons who do evil deeds and believe
that they are doing something good, i.e., a person who is like that has been
misguided by Allah, so what can you do for him? You cannot help him at all.'
means, do not grieve about that, for Allah is Wise in His decree and He leaves
astray whomsoever He leaves astray, and He guides whomsoever He guides, and in
doing so He has perfect knowledge and wisdom.
it is Allah Who sends the winds, so that they raise up the clouds, and We drive
them to a dead land, and revive therewith the earth after its death. As such
(will be) the Resurrection!
Often Allah refers to the Resurrection by using the analogy of the earth coming
back to life after it has died, as in the beginning of Surah
Al-Hajj, where He urges His servants to draw the lesson of the
former from the latter.
For the earth is dead and lifeless, with nothing growing in it, then He sends to
it clouds which bring water, which He sends down upon it,
Whosoever desires Al-`Izzah then to Allah belongs all Al-`Izzah.
desires honor, power and glory in this world and the next, let him be obedient
towards Allah, may He be exalted. This will help him reach his goal, for Allah
is the Sovereign of this world and the Hereafter, and to Him belong all honor,
power and glory.
But Al-`Izzah belongs to Allah, and to His Messenger, and to the believers, but
the hypocrites know not. (63:8)
مَن كَانَ يُرِيدُ الْعِزَّةَ
(Whosoever desires Al-`Izzah) means, by
worshipping idols, فَإِنَّ العِزَّةَ
(then to Allah belongs Al-`Izzah).
مَن كَانَ يُرِيدُ الْعِزَّةَ فَلِلَّهِ الْعِزَّةُ
Whosoever desires Al-`Izzah then to Allah
belongs Al-`Izzah. means, let him seek honor,
power and glory through obeying Allah, may He be glorified.
Righteous Deeds ascend to Allah
... إِلَيْهِ يَصْعَدُ الْكَلِمُ الطَّيِّبُ ...
Him ascend the good words,
means, words of remembrance, recitation of Qur'an, and supplications.
This was the view of more than one of the Salaf.
Ibn Jarir recorded that Al-Mukhariq bin Sulaym said that "Abdullah bin Mas`ud,
may Allah be pleased with him, said to them,
"If we tell you a Hadith, we will bring you
proof of it from the Book of Allah. When the Muslim servants says, `Glory and
praise be to Allah, there is no god worthy of worship except Allah, Allah is
Most Great and blessed be Allah,' an angel takes these words and puts them under
his wing, then he ascends with them to the heaven. He does not take them past
any group of angels but they seek forgiveness for the one who said them, until
he brings them before Allah, may He be glorified.''
Then Abdullah, may Allah be pleased with him, recited:
theirs will be severe torment. And the plotting of such will perish.
meaning, it will fail and vanish, for their reality is apparent from up close to
those who have insight and wisdom.
No one conceals a secret but Allah will cause it to become known, on his face or
by a slip of the tongue, or He will cause the person to wear it like a cloak (so
that everyone will see it). If it is good, then the consequences will be good,
and if it is bad, then the consequences will be bad.
The person who shows off cannot continue to deceive anyone but the fool, but the
believers who have insight are not deceived by that; from up close, they soon
discover it. And nothing at all can be hidden from the Knower of the Unseen
Allah knows what every
female bears, and by how much the wombs fall short or exceed. Everything with
Him is in (due) proportion. All-Knower of the unseen and the seen, the Most
Great, the Most High. (13:8-9)
no aged man is granted a length of life nor is a part cut off from his life, but
is in a Book.
means, some of those sperm are granted a long life, which He knows and it is
recorded with Him in the First Book.
وَلَا يُنقَصُ مِنْ عُمُرِهِ
(nor is a part cut off from his life), Here the pronoun (his) refers to mankind
in general, not to a specific person, because the long life which is recorded in
the Book and is known by Allah will not be cut off.
It was reported via Al-Awfi that Ibn Abbas said concerning the
no aged man is granted a length of life nor is a part cut off from his life, but
is in a Book. Surely, that is easy for Allah.
There is no one for whom Allah has decreed a long life but he will reach the age
that has been decreed for him. When he reaches the time that has been decreed
for him, he will not surpass it. And there is no one for whom Allah has decreed
a short life but it will end when he reaches the age that has been decreed for
the two seas (kinds of water) are not alike: this is palatable, sweet and
pleasant to drink,
Allah says, pointing out His mighty power in creating different things, how He
has created the two seas (kinds of water). The fresh, palatable sea (kind of
water) refers to the rivers which flow among people, rivers great and small
according to people's needs in all regions and areas and lands. This water is
sweet and palatable for whoever wants to drink it.
... وَهَذَا مِلْحٌ أُجَاجٌ ...
that is salty and bitter.
means, unpalatable. This is the ocean in which the big ships sail, and is salty
Out of them both come
out pearl and coral. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both
(Jinn and men) deny! (55:22-23)
... وَتَرَى الْفُلْكَ
فِيهِ مَوَاخِرَ ...
you see the ships cleaving,
means, they travel through it, plowing through the water with their beak-shaped
Mujahid said, The wind drives the ships, and the wind cannot drive any ships
except the big ones.
...لِتَبْتَغُوا مِن فَضْلِهِ ...
you may seek of His bounty,
means, through your journeys to engage in trade from one land to another.
... وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ
that you may give thanks.
means, that you may give
thanks to your Lord for subjugating this mighty creation -- the sea -- to you,
so that you can travel through it as you wish and go wherever you want, and
nothing stops you؛ His power has subjugated for you whatever is in the heavens
and on earth, and all of this is by His grace and mercy.
merges the night into the day, and He merges the day into the night.
Another aspect of His perfect power and might is that He has subjugated the
night with its darkness and the day with its light. He takes from the length of
the one and adds it to the shortness of the other, until they become equal. Then
He takes from the latter and adds to the former, so one becomes long and the
other becomes short, so they take from one another in summer and in winter.
... وَسَخَّرَ الشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ ...
He has subjected the sun and the moon,
and the stars and planets, with their light. All of them run in their appointed
courses and in the manner prescribed for them, as decreed by the Almighty,
... كُلٌّ يَجْرِي لِأَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى ...
runs its course for a term appointed.
means, until the Day of Resurrection.
... ذَلِكُمُ اللَّهُ رَبُّكُمْ ...
is Allah, your Lord.
means, the One Who has done all this is the Almighty Lord besides Whom there is
no other true God.
And who is more astray than one who calls on besides Allah, such
as will not answer him till the Day of Resurrection, and who are (even) unaware
of their calls to them. And when mankind are gathered, they (false deities) will
become their enemies and will deny their worshipping. (46:5-6)
You can warn only those who fear their Lord unseen and perform
the Salah. And he who purifies himself (from all kinds of sins),
then he purifies only for the benefit of himself. And to Allah is
the Return (of all).
Mankind is in need of Allah, and
each Person will carry His own Burdens on the Day of Resurrection
Allah tells us that He has no need of anyone or anything else, but all of
creation is in need of Him and is in a position of humility before Him.
he who purifies himself, then he purifies only for the benefit of himself.
means, who does righteous deeds, the benefit of that will come back to him,
... وَإِلَى اللَّهِ الْمَصِيرُ
to Allah is the Return.
means, to Him everything
will ultimately return, and He is swift in bringing to account. He will reward
or punish everyone according to his deeds: if they are good, then the end will
be good, and if they are bad, then the end will be bad.
Allah says that these antonyms are clearly not equal, the blind and the seeing
are not equal, there is a difference and a huge gap between them. Darkness and
light are not equal, neither are shade and the sun's heat. By the same token,
the living and the dead are not equal.
This is the parable Allah makes of the believers who are the living, and the
disbelievers who are the dead.
The parable of the two
parties is as that of the blind and the deaf and the seer and the hearer. Are
they equal when compared? (11:24)
The believer sees and hears, and walks in the light upon a straight path in this
world and the Hereafter, until he comes to settle in Gardens (Paradise) wherein
is shade and springs.
The disbeliever is blind and deaf, walking in darkness from which he cannot
escape, he is lost in his misguidance in this world and the Hereafter, until he
ends up in fierce hot wind and boiling water, and shadow of black smoke, neither
cool nor good.
... إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُسْمِعُ مَن يَشَاء ...
Verily, Allah makes whom He wills to hear,
means. He guides them to listen to the proof and accept it and adhere it.
means, `just as the dead cannot benefit from guidance and the call to truth
after they have died as disbelievers and ended up in the graves, so too you
cannot help these idolators who are decreed to be doomed, and you cannot guide
you not that Allah sends down water from the sky, and We produce therewith
fruits of various colors,
Allah tells us of His complete and perfect power of creation. He tells us how He
makes different kinds of things from one thing, which is the water that He sends
down from the heaven. From water He brings forth fruits of various colors,
yellow, red, green, white and other colors, as we can see in the immense variety
of their colors, tastes and scents.
And in the earth are
neighbouring tracts, and gardens of vines, and green crops, and date palms,
growing into two or three from a single stem root, or otherwise, watered with
the same water; yet some of them We make more excellent than others to eat.
Verily, in these things there are Ayat for the people who understand. (13:4)
likewise, men and moving creatures and cattle are of various colors.
means, the same is true of living creatures too, humans and animals, all
creatures which walk on their feet, and cattle. Here something general is
followed by something specific. These are all different too, for among mankind
there are Berbers, Ethiopians and some non-Arabs who are very black, and Slavs
and Romans who are very white, and the Arabs who are in between, and the
is only those who have knowledge among His servants that fear Allah.
meaning, only those who have knowledge truly fear Him as He should be feared,
because the more they know about the Almighty, All-Powerful, All-Knowing Who has
the most perfect attributes and is described with the most beautiful Names, the
more they will fear Him.
Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas commented on the
Ayah: إِنَّمَا يَخْشَى اللَّهَ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ الْعُلَمَاء,
those who know that Allah is able to do all things.
Ibn Abbas said,
"The one among His servants who knows about
Ar-Rahman, is the one who does not associate anything in worship with
Him; the one who accepts as lawful that which He has permitted and accepts as
unlawful that which He has prohibited. He obeys His commands and is certain that
he will meet Him and be brought to account for his deeds."
Sa`id bin Jubayr said,
"Fear is what stands between you and disobeying Allah, may He be glorified.''
Al-Hasan Al-Basri said,
"The knowledgeable person is the one who fears
Ar-Rahman with regard to the Unseen, who likes that which Allah wants him
to like, and who shuns that which angers Allah.''
Verily, those who recite the Book of Allah, and perform the Salah, and spend out
of what We have provided for them, secretly and openly, they hope for a (sure)
trade-gain that will never perish.
Here Allah tells us that His believing servants, who recite and believe in His
Book, and do the deeds prescribed in it such as establishing regular prayer at
the prescribed times, night and day, spending (in charity) out of that which
Allah has provided for them secretly and openly,
يَرْجُونَ تِجَارَةً لَّن تَبُور
(they hope for a (sure) trade-gain that will never perish). means, they hope for
a reward from Allah which will inevitably be theirs.
Verily, Allah is indeed All-Aware and All-Seer of His servants.
means, He is All-Aware of
them and knows who deserves to receive the blessing which He may give to him and
not to others. The Prophets and the Messengers are favored above the rest of
mankind, and some of the Prophets were given more than others and given higher
status than others. The position given to Muhammad is higher than that of all
the others, may the blessings and peace of Allah be upon them all.
Then of them are some who wrong themselves, and of them are some
who follow a middle course, and of them are some who are, by Allah's
leave, foremost in good deeds. That -- that is indeed a great grace.
of them are some who are, by Allah's leave, foremost in good deeds.
these are the ones who do obligatory actions and things which are encouraged,
and who avoid doing unlawful and disliked actions, and avoid some actions which
... ذَلِكَ هُوَ الْفَضْلُ الْكَبِيرُ
is indeed a great grace.
Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas commented on the
Ayah: ثُمَّ أَوْرَثْنَا الْكِتَابَ الَّذِينَ اصْطَفَيْنَا مِنْ
عِبَادِنَا (Then We gave the Book as inheritance
to such of Our servants whom We chose).
"This refers to the Ummah of Muhammad. Allah
caused it to inherit every Book that He had revealed; those who wrong themselves
will be forgiven, those who follow a middle course will have an easy accounting,
and those who are foremost in good deeds will enter Paradise without being
brought to account.''
Abu Al-Qasim At-Tabarani reported from Ibn Abbas that the Messenger of Allah
said one day:
شَفَاعَتِي لِأَهْلِ الْكَبَائِرِ مِنْ أُمَّتِي
My intercession will be for those among my Ummah who commit major
Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said,
-"Those who are
foremost in good deeds will enter Paradise without being brought to account;
-those who follow a
middle course will enter Paradise by the mercy of Allah; and
-those who wrong
themselves and Ashab Al-A`raf will enter
Paradise by the intercession of Muhammad.''
It was also reported from a number of the Salaf
that those among this Ummah who wrong
themselves are still among those whom Allah has chosen, even though they are
imperfect and fell short (by not adhering to the straight path).
Others said that those who wrong themselves are not part of this
Ummah and are not among those whom Allah has
chosen and who inherited the Book.
The correct view is that they are also part of this
The Virtues of the Scholars
The scholars are the most fortunate of people with regard to this blessing, and
the most entitled to this mercy.
Imam Ahmad, may Allah have mercy on him, recorded that Qays bin Kathir said,
"One of the people of Al-Madinah came to Abu Ad-Darda', may Allah be pleased
with him, when he was in Damascus. (Abu Ad-Darda') said, `What brought you here,
He said, `A Hadith which I heard that you
narrate from the Messenger of Allah.'
He said, `Have you come for trade?'
He said, `No.'
He said, `Have you come for any other reason?'
He said, `No.'
He said, `Have you come only to seek this Hadith?'
He said, `Yes.'
He, may Allah be pleased with him said, `I heard the Messenger of Allah say:
Whoever follows a path to seek knowledge, Allah will show him the way to
Paradise. The angels lower their wings being pleased with the one who seeks
knowledge. Whoever is in the heavens and on earth, even the fish in the sea, ask
for forgiveness for the scholar.
The superiority of the scholar over the worshipper is like that of the moon over
all other heavenly bodies. The scholars are the heirs of the Prophets, for the
Prophets did not leave behind Dinars and Dirhams, but they left behind
knowledge; and whoever receives it, receives an abundance of good fortune.'''
It was also reported by
Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah.
Allah tells us that those whom He chose among His servants, those who inherited
the Book which was revealed from the Lord of the worlds, will, on the Day of
Resurrection, have an abode in Everlasting Gardens which they will enter on the
Day when they are raised anew and meet Allah.
where toil will touch us not nor weariness will touch us.
means, neither hardship nor exhaustion will touch us.
The words translated here as "toil'' and "weariness'' both mean exhaustion, as
if what is meant by the negation of both is that neither their bodies nor their
souls will become exhausted; and Allah knows best.
They used to exhaust themselves in worshipping this world, but their obligations
will come to an end when they enter Paradise, where they will enjoy eternal rest
(Allah will reply:) "Did We not give you lives long enough, so
that whosoever would receive admonition could receive it And the
warner came to you. So taste you. For the wrongdoers there is no
The Punishment of the Disbeliever
and what Their State will be in Hell
Having told us how the blessed will be (in Paradise), Allah now starts to tell
us what the state of doomed will be.
Verily, the criminals
will be in the torment of Hell to abide therein forever. (That) will not be
lightened for them, and they will be plunged into destruction with deep regrets,
sorrows and in despair therein. (43:74-75)
كُلَّمَا خَبَتْ زِدْنَاهُمْ سَعِيرًا
whenever it abates, We
shall increase for them the fierceness of the Fire. (17:97)
فَذُوقُواْ فَلَن نَّزِيدَكُمْ إِلاَّ عَذَاباً
So taste you. No
increase shall We give you, except in torment. (78:30)
Then Allah says:
... كَذَلِكَ نَجْزِي كُلَّ كَفُورٍ
do We requite every disbeliever!
meaning, this is the recompense of everyone who disbelieved in his Lord and
denied the truth.
Lord! Bring us out, we shall do righteous good deeds, not that we used to do.''
which means, they will ask to go back to the worldly life so that they can do
something different to the first deeds they did. But Allah, may He be glorified,
knows that if He sent them back to this world, they would go back to what they
had been forbidden to do, and He knows that they are lying, so He will not
respond to their plea.
This is like the Ayah where Allah tells us
that they will say:
Whoever is granted a long life until the age of sixty, Allah has
left no excuse for him.''
was also recorded by Imam Ahmad and An-Nasa'i in Ar-Riqaq.
Because this is the age at which Allah removes any excuse from His servants,
this is the usual age of people in this Ummah,
as was reported in the Hadith of Abu
Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, who said, "The Messenger of Allah said:
the disbelief of the disbelievers adds nothing but loss.
This is in contrast to the
believers, for the longer they live and do good deeds, the higher their status
in Paradise will be, the greater their reward, and the more beloved they will be
to their Creator.
if they were to move away from their places, there is not one that could grasp
them after Him.
means, no one can make them stay and preserve them except Him. He is Ever Most
Forbearing and Oft-Forgiving because He sees His servants disbelieving in Him
and disobeying Him, yet He is patient and gives them time, He waits and does not
hasten the punishment, and He conceals the faults of others and forgives them.
And indeed they (Arab
pagans) used to say: "If we had a reminder as had the men of old, We would have
indeed been the chosen servants of Allah!'' But they disbelieve therein, so they
will come to know! (37:167-170)
...فَلَمَّا جَاءهُمْ نَذِيرٌ ...
when a warner came to them, --
meaning, Muhammad with the Book revealed to him, i.e., the Clear Qur'an,
... مَّا زَادَهُمْ إِلَّا نُفُورًا
increased in them nothing but flight (from the truth).
they not traveled in the land, and seen what was the end of those before them --
though they were superior to them in power! Allah is not such that anything in
the heavens or in the earth escapes Him.
Allah says: `say, O Muhammad, to these people who disbelieve the Message you
travel in the land and see what was the punishment of those who disbelieved the
Messengers, how Allah destroyed them completely, and a similar (end awaits) the
disbelievers. See how their homes were emptied of them and how they lost
everything after living in luxury and being so numerous and so well equipped,
and having so much wealth and so many children. All of that was of no avail to
them and could not protect them in the slightest from the punishment of Allah
when the command of the Lord came. Nothing is impossible for Him when He wants
it to happen in the heavens or on earth.'
... إِنَّهُ كَانَ عَلِيمًا قَدِيرًا
Verily, He is All-Knowing, All-Able.
means, He knows all that exists and is able to do all things.
if Allah were to punish men for that which they earned, He would not leave a
moving creature on the surface of the earth;
meaning, if He were to punish them for all of their sins, He would destroy all
the people of the earth and all that they own of livestock and crops.
Sa`id bin Jubayr and As-Suddi commented on the Ayah:
مَا تَرَكَ عَلَى ظَهْرِهَا مِن دَابَّةٍ ,
"This means, He would have stopped sending rain to them, and all the animals
would have died as a result.''
means, but He is delaying until the Day of Resurrection, when He will bring them
to account and will reward or punish each one according to his deeds: He will
reward those who obeyed Him and will punish those who disobeyed Him.