Verily, We have adorned the
near heaven with the stars.
Allah tells us that He has adorned the lowest heaven with the heavenly bodies
for those among the people of the earth who look at it. The stars and planets in
the sky give light to the people of earth, as Allah says:
And indeed, We have put
the big stars in the heaven and We beautified it for the beholders. And We have
guarded it from every outcast Shaytan. Except him who steals the hearing then he
is pursued by a clear flaming fire. (15:16-18)
And Allah says here:
And to guard,
meaning, to protect as it should be protected,
... مِّن كُلِّ شَيْطَانٍ مَّارِدٍ
against every rebellious
means, every insolent and impudent devil, when he wants to eavesdrop (on news in
the heavens), a piercing fire comes and burns him.
meaning, they cannot reach the higher group -- which refers to the heavens and
the angels in them -- when they speak of what has been revealed by Allah of His
Laws and decrees.
We have already mentioned this when explaining the Hadiths quoted when we
discussed the Ayah,
حَتَّى إِذَا فُزِّعَ عَن قُلُوبِهِمْ قَالُوا مَاذَا قَالَ رَبُّكُمْ قَالُوا
الْحَقَّ وَهُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْكَبِيرُ (when fear is banished
from their hearts, they say: "What is it that your Lord has said'' They say:
"The truth. And He is the Most High, the Most Great. (34:23)
... وَيُقْذَفُونَ ...
for they are pelted,
meaning, they are hit,
... مِن كُلِّ جَانِبٍ
from every side.
means, from all directions from which they try to reach the heaven.
means, they are rejected, and are repelled and prevented from reaching it, and
they are pelted.
... وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ وَاصِبٌ
and theirs is a constant
means, in the Hereafter, they will have an ongoing, everlasting and painful
torment, as Allah says:
وَأَعْتَدْنَا لَهُمْ عَذَابَ السَّعِيرِ
and (We) have prepared
for them the torment of the blazing Fire. (67:5)
means, except for the one among the Shayatin
who manages to get something, which is a word he has heard from the heaven. Then
he throws it down to the one who is beneath him, who in turn throws it down to
the one who is beneath him. Perhaps the flaming fire will strike him before he
is able to throw it down, or perhaps he will throw it -- by the decree of Allah
-- before the flaming fire strikes him and burns him. So the other devil takes
it to the soothsayer, as we have seen previously in the Hadith.
Except such as snatch away
something by stealing, and they are pursued by a flaming fire of piercing
meaning, shining brightly.
Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said,
"The Shayatin had places where they sat in
the heavens listening to what was being revealed by Allah. The stars did not
move and the Shayatin were not struck. When
they heard the revelation, they would come down to earth and to every word they
would add nine of their own. When the Messenger of Allah was sent, if a
Shaytan wanted to take his seat in the
heavens, the flaming fire would come and would not miss him; it would burn him
They complained about this to Iblis, may Allah curse him, and he said,
`Something must have happened.' He sent his troops out and they found the
Messenger of Allah standing in prayer between the two mountains of Nakhlah.'' –
Waki` said, "This means in the valley of Nakhlah.'' –
"They went back to Iblis and told him about that, and he said, `This is what has
Then ask them: "Are they
harder to create, or those whom We have created!''
Allah says: `Ask these people, those who deny the resurrection, which is harder
Are they more difficult to create or the heavens, the earth, the angels, devils,
the mighty creatures -- everything in between them!'
Ibn Mas`ud said that they admitted that these things were harder to create than
they were. If this is the case, then why do they deny the resurrection, when
they see things that are greater than that which they deny?
means, `you were astounded, O Muhammad, at these people who denied the
resurrection whilst you were certain that it is true, when they disbelieved in
what Allah told you of this wondrous matter, which is the re-creation of their
bodies after they have disintegrated. They oppose what you say because of their
intense disbelief and they make fun of what you tell them about that.'
Qatadah said, "Muhammad was astounded by the mockery of the misguided ones among
the sons of Adam.''
Allah tells us what the disbeliever will say on the Day of Resurrection; how
they will blame themselves and admit that they wronged themselves in this world.
When they see the horrors of the Day of Resurrection with their own eyes, they
will be filled with regret at the time when regret will not avail them anything.
(It will be said to the
angels:) Assemble those who did wrong, together with their companions,
An-Nu`man bin Bashir, may Allah be pleased with him, said, "Their companions
means, their counterparts, those who are like them.''
This was also the view of Ibn Abbas, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ikrimah, Mujahid, As-Suddi,
Abu Salih, Abu Al-`Aliyah and Zayd bin Aslam.
Sharik said, narrating from Simak, from An-Nu`man: "I heard Umar say:
احْشُرُوا الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا وَأَزْوَاجَهُمْ,
means, `Those who are like them. So those who committed
Zina will be gathered with others who committed
Zina, those who dealt in
Riba will be gathered with others who dealt
in Riba, those who drank wine will be
gathered with others who drank wine.'
Mujahid and Sa`id bin Jubayr narrated from Ibn Abbas:
companions), means"Their friends.''
and We shall gather them
together on the Day of Resurrection on their faces, blind, dumb and deaf; their
abode will be Hell; whenever it abates, We shall increase for them the
fierceness of the Fire. (17:97)
But if you could see
when the wrongdoers will be made to stand before their Lord, how they will cast
the (blaming) word one to another! Those who were deemed weak will say to those
who were arrogant: "Had it not been for you, we should certainly have been
And those who were
arrogant will say to those who were deemed weak: "Did we keep you back from
guidance after it had come to you? Nay, but you were criminals.''
Those who were deemed
weak will say to those who were arrogant: "Nay, but it was your plotting by
night and day, when you ordered us to disbelieve in Allah and set up rivals to
Him!'' And each of them (parties) will conceal their own regrets, when they
behold the torment. And We shall put iron collars round the necks of those who
disbelieved. Are they requited aught except what they used to do! (34:31-33)
I have been commanded to fight the people until they say
La ilaha ill-Allah. Whoever says La ilaha illallah,
he and his property are safe from me except for his obligation, and his
reckoning will be with Allah, may He be glorified.
Allah revealed in His Book the story of people who were arrogant, as He says:
There is not one of you
but will pass over it (Hell); this is with your Lord, a decree which must be
accomplished. Then We shall save those who have Taqwa. And We shall leave the
wrongdoers therein to their knees. (19:71-72)
meaning, they will not taste the painful torment nor will they be brought to
account. Their evil acts, if there are any, will be overlooked, and each good
deed will be rewarded in multiples of between ten and seven hundred, or as much
as Allah wills.
Immortal boys will go
around them (serving), with cups, and jugs, and a glass of flowing wine, from
which they will get neither any aching of the head nor any intoxication.
Allah refined the wine of Paradise from the bad effects of the wine of this
world, which causes headaches and stomach aches -- which is the meaning of
Ghawl -- causing people to lose their minds
So He says here:
بِكَأْسٍ مِن مَّعِينٍ
Round them will be passed a
cup of pure wine,
meaning, wine from a flowing stream which they do not fear will ever be cut off
Malik narrated that Zayd bin Aslam said,
"White flowing wine,'' meaning, with a bright, shining color, unlike the wine of
this earth with its ugly, repulsive colors of red, black, yellow and turbid
shades, and other features which are repugnant to anyone of a sound nature.
to the drinkers). means, its taste will be as good as its color, and a good
taste indicates that it has a good smell, unlike the wine of this world.
لَا فِيهَا غَوْلٌ ...
Neither will they have
Ghawl from that,
means, it will not have any effects on them such as causing stomach aches. This
was the view of Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Mujahid, Qatadah and
This is unlike the wine of this world, which causes colic and so on, because it
is too watery.
... وَلَا هُمْ عَنْهَا يُنزَفُونَ
nor will they suffer
Mujahid said, "It will not cause them to lose their minds.''
This was also the view of Ibn Abbas, Muhammad bin Ka`b, Al-Hasan. `Ata' bin Abi
Muslim Al-Khurasani, As-Suddi and others.
Ad-Dahhak reported that Ibn Abbas said, "Wine causes four things: intoxication,
headache, vomiting and urine.''
So, when Allah mentions the wine of Paradise, He states that it is free of these
characteristics, as mentioned in Surah As-Saffat.
Then they will turn to one
another, mutually questioning.
Allah tells us how the people of Paradise will turn to one another, asking one
another about their situation, how they were in this world and what they
suffered. This is part of their conversation when they get together to converse
and drink, sitting on their thrones, servants coming and going, bringing all
kinds of good food, drink, clothes and other delights no eye has seen, no ear
has heard, never having comprehend the mind of man.
Had it not been for the
grace of my Lord, I would certainly have been among those brought forth (to
means, `Were it not for the favor of my Lord towards me, I would have been like
you in the middle of Hell where you are, brought forth with you for punishment.
But He bestowed His grace upon me, had mercy upon me and guided me to faith and
to belief in Him Alone.'
"They know that death brings an end to every delight, so they will say,
أَفَمَا نَحْنُ بِمَيِّتِينَ إِلَّا مَوْتَتَنَا الْأُولَى وَمَا نَحْنُ
Are we then not to die Except our first death, and we shall not be punished. It
will be said, "No, إِنَّ هَذَا لَهُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ (Truly, this is the
"These are the Words of Allah, and it means: for the like of this pleasure and
this success, let the workers work in this world, so that they may attain it in
The Story of Two Israelites
They mentioned the story of two men among the Children of Israel who were
partners and who are included in the meaning of this
Abu Jafar bin Jarir recorded that Furat bin Thalabah Al-Bahrani said concerning
كَانَ لِي قَرِينٌ
(Verily, I had a companion, Ayah 51),
"There were two men who were partners and had collected eight thousand Dinars.
One of them had a craft and the other did not. The one who had a craft said to
the other, `You do not have a craft, so I think I will divide the money with you
and leave you.' So he left him.
Then the man bought a house, belonging to a king who had died, for the price of
one thousand Dinars. He called his companion and showed him the house, saying,
`What do you think of this house I bought it for one thousand Dinars.'
He said, `How beautiful it is.'
When he went out he said, `O Allah, this companion of mine has bought this house
for one thousand Dinars; I ask You for one of the houses of Paradise -- and he
gave one thousand Dinars in charity.'
Then as much time passed as Allah willed should pass. The first man married a
woman with a dowry of one thousand Dinars, and invited his companion and made
food for him. When he came, he said, `I have married this woman with a dowry of
one thousand Dinars.'
He replied; `How beautiful this is.' And when he left, he said, `O Lord, my
companion has married a woman with a dowry of one thousand Dinars; I ask you for
a wife from among Al-Hur Al-`Iyn' -- and he
gave one thousand Dinars in charity.
Then as much time passed as Allah willed should pass. Then the first man bought
two gardens for two thousand Dinars, then he called his companion and showed
them to him. He said, `I have bought these two gardens for two thousand Dinars.'
He replied, `How beautiful this is.' When he came out, he said, `O Lord, my
companion has bought two gardens for two thousand Dinars; I ask you for two
gardens in Paradise' -- and he gave two thousand Dinars in charity.
Then the angel came to them and took their souls in death. He took the one who
had given his money in charity and put him in a house that he liked. There,
there was a woman who was so beautiful that the ground shinned under her, then
he (the angel) took him to two gardens and gave him other things which are known
only to Allah.
The man said, `This is like a man who has such and such.'
The angel said, `That is exactly what it is; this house, these gardens and this
wife are all for you.'
The man said, `I had a companion who used to say: Are you among those who
It was said to him, `He is in Hell.' He said, `Will you look down!'
So he looked down and saw him in the midst of Hell.
And We made not the
vision which we showed you but a trial for mankind, and the accursed tree in the
Qur'an. We warn and make them afraid but it only increases them in naught save
great disbelief, oppression and disobedience to Allah. (17:60)
إِنَّهَا شَجَرَةٌ تَخْرُجُ فِي أَصْلِ
Verily, it is a tree that springs out of the bottom of Hell-fire. means, its
roots grow at the bottom of Hell.
The shoots of its fruit
stalks are like the heads of Shayatin.
this is a description of how ugly and repulsive it is. It is likened to رُؤُوسُ الشَّيَاطِين
(the heads of Shayatin), even though they
have never seen them, because it is a well-established idea in people's minds
that devils are ugly in appearance.
Truly, they will eat
thereof and fill their bellies therewith.
Allah mentions that they will eat of this extremely ugly tree even though its
fruit tastes and smells so bad; they will be forced to eat from it because they
will not find anything else to eat except this tree and similar things, as Allah
Then on the top of that
they will be boiling Hamim.
Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said,
"This means they will be given boiling Hamim
to drink after they have eaten from Zaqqum.''
According to another report, he said that this means a mixture made from boiling
Someone else said that it means boiling water will be mixed with pus and
offensive discharges that leak from their private parts and eyes.
Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Sa`id bin Jubayr said,
"When the people of Hell get hungry, they will ask for food from the tree of
Zaqqum. They will eat from it, then the skin
of their faces will fall off, If someone were to pass by, he would recognize
them from their faces. Then thirst will be sent upon them, so they will ask to
be given something to drink, and they will be given water like boiling oil that
has been heated to the ultimate degree. When it is brought near to their mouths,
the flesh of their faces from which the skin has fallen off will be baked by its
heat, and whatever is in their stomachs will melt. They will walk with their
guts falling out and with their skin falling off, then they will be beaten with
hooked rods of iron. Then every part of their bodies will burst into loud
Allah tells us that most of the previous nations went astray, worshipping other
gods alongside Allah. He states that He sent among them warners to alert them to
the anger, wrath and vengeance of Allah towards those who disbelieve in Him and
worship others besides Him. He tells us that they persisted in their opposition
to their Messengers and their disbelief in them, so He destroyed those who
disbelieved in Him and saved the believers and caused them to prevail.
When Allah tells us about how most of the early people went astray from the path
of salvation, He starts the detailed explanation of that with the story of Nuh
and the rejection of his people.
Only a few of Nuh's people believed in him, despite the long period of time he
spent among them. He stayed among them for one thousand years less fifty, and
after he stayed among them for so long and their disbelief became too much for
him to bear -- for every time he called them, they turned away from him even
more -- he prayed to his Lord saying,
"I have been overcome, so help (me)!''
So Allah became angry because Nuh was angry with them.
means, `This is how We reward those of Our servants who do deeds of obedience to
Allah. We gave him an honorable mention so that after he died he is still
remembered in a manner that befits his status.'
Ibrahim, peace be upon him, said this to his people so that he could stay behind
in the city when they went out for their festival. The time was approaching for
them to go out to celebrate a festival of theirs, and he wanted to be alone with
their gods so that he could break them, so he told them something that was true,
for he was indeed sick of the implications of what they believed in.
Ibrahim (peace and blessings be upon him) did not lie except in three cases.
Two were for the sake of Allah:
-one is when he
said, Verily, I am sick;
-and the second when
he said, Nay, this one, the biggest of them (idols) did it.
and the third when he said concerning (his wife) Sarah, "She is my sister.''
This Hadith is recorded in the books of the Sahih and Sunan with
various chains of narrations.
But this is not the kind of real lie for which a person is to be condemned --
Allah forbid! One calls it a lie for lack of a better word, because it is
abstruse speech used for a legitimate religious purpose, and it was said that
what was meant by the words, إِنِّي سَقِيم
(Verily, I am sick) was, `I am sick at heart of your worshipping idols instead
Al-Hasan Al-Basri said,
"The people of Ibrahim went out to their festival and they wanted to make him go
out too. So he lay down on his back and said,
إِنِّي سَقِيمٌ (Verily, I am sick), and
he started looking at the sky. When they had gone out, he turned to their gods
and broke them.''
Then he turned upon them,
striking (them) with (his) right hand.
Al-Farra' said, "This means, he started to hit them with his right hand.''
Qatadah and Al-Jawhari said, "He turned to them, hitting them with his right
He struck them with his right hand because the right hand is stronger and more
powerful. Then he left them broken to pieces, (all) except the biggest of them,
that they might turn to it, as we have already seen in the Tafsir of Surah
Mujahid and others said, "This means, they came rushing."
The story is told in brief here; in Surah Al-Anbiya',
it is told in more detail. When they returned, they did not know at first who
had done this, until they investigated and found out that Ibrahim, peace be upon
him, was the one who had done it. When they came to rebuke him, he started
rebuking and criticizing them and said:
said: Build for him a building (i.e., furnace) and throw him into the blazing
There happened what we have already discussed in our Tafsir of Surah
Al-Anbiya', (21:68-70) and Allah saved him
from the fire and caused him to prevail over them, making his proof supreme and
Ibrahim's Emigration, the Test of
the Sacrifice of Isma`il, and how Allah blessed Him
Allah tells us that after He helped His close friend Ibrahim, peace be upon him,
against his people, and after Ibrahim gave up hoping that they would ever
believe despite all the mighty signs that they had witnessed, he emigrated away
from them, and said:
We gave him the glad tidings of a forbearing boy.
This child was Ismail, peace be upon him, for he was the first child of whom
glad tidings were given to Ibrahim, peace be upon him, and he was older than
The Muslims and the People of the Book agree, and indeed it is stated in their
Book, that Ismail, peace be upon him, was born when Ibrahim, peace be upon him,
was eighty-six years old, and Ishaq was born when Ibrahim was ninety-nine years
According to their Book, Allah commanded Ibrahim to sacrifice his only son, and
in another text it says his firstborn son. But here they falsely inserted the
name of Ishaq. This is not right because it goes against what their own
They inserted the name of Ishaq because he is their ancestor, while Ismail is
the ancestor of the Arabs. They were jealous of them, so they added this idea
and changed the meaning of the phrase "only son'' to mean `the only son who is
with you,' because Ismail had been taken with his mother to Makkah. But this is
a case of falsification and distortion, because the words "only son'' cannot be
said except in the case of one who has no other son. Furthermore, the firstborn
son has a special status that is not shared by subsequent children, so the
command to sacrifice him is a more exquisite test.
when he (his son) was old enough to walk with him,
means, when he grew up and started to go with his father and walk with him, for
Ibrahim used to go every so often to check on his son and his mother in the land
of Faran (i.e., Makkah), to see how they were doing. It was said that he used to
ride on Al-Buraq, traveling there swiftly,
and Allah knows best.
It was reported from Ibn Abbas, peace be upon him, Mujahid, Ikrimah, Sa`id bin
Jubayr, Ata' Al-Khurasani, Zayd bin Aslam and others that فَلَمَّا بَلَغَ مَعَهُ السَّعْيَ (And, when he
(his son) was old enough to walk with him), means,
when he became a young man and was able to work as his father did.
when he (his son) was old enough to walk with him, he said:
my son! I have seen in a dream that I am slaughtering you. So look what you
`Ubayd bin Umayr said, "The dreams of the Prophets are revelation,'' then he
recited this Ayah: قَالَ يَا بُنَيَّ إِنِّي أَرَى فِي الْمَنَامِ أَنِّي أَذْبَحُكَ
فَانظُرْ مَاذَا تَرَى
He told his son that in order to make it easier for him, and also to test his
patience and resolve, at a young age, in obeying Allah and obeying his father.
... قَالَ يَا أَبَتِ افْعَلْ مَا تُؤْمَرُ ...
said: "O my father! Do that which you are commanded...''
meaning, `obey the command of Allah and sacrifice me.'
And mention in the Book
Ismail. Verily, he was true to what he promised, and he was a Messenger, (and) a
Prophet. And he used to enjoin on his family the Salah and the Zakah, and his
Lord was pleased with him. (19:54-55)
Then, when they had both
submitted themselves, and he had laid him prostrate on his forehead;
means, when both of them had pronounced the Shahadah
and remembered Allah -- Ibrahim because he was about to offer a sacrifice and
Ismail because he was about to die.
Or it was said that "submitted themselves'' means that they submitted and
followed the command of Allah; Ibrahim obeyed the command of Allah and Ismail
obeyed Allah and his father.
This was the view of Mujahid, Ikrimah, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Ibn Ishaq, and
The meaning of the phrase "and he had laid him prostrate on his forehead'' is:
he placed him facedown so that he could slaughter him from behind, and not have
to see his face at the time of slaughter, so that it would be easier for him.
Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ad-Dahhak
and Qatadah said:وَتَلَّهُ لِلْجَبِينِ ;
means, "He turned him upside down on his face.''
Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said,
"When the rituals were enjoined upon Ibrahim, peace be upon him, the
Shaytan appeared to him at the
Masa and raced with him, but Ibrahim got
there first. Then Jibril, upon him be peace, took him to
Jamrat Al-Aqabah and the
Shaytan appeared to him, so he stoned him
with seven pebbles until he disappeared. Then he appeared him at
Al-Jamrah Al-Wusta and he stoned him with
seven pebbles. Then he laid him prostrate on his face. Ismail, peace be upon
him, was wearing a white shirt, and he said, `O my father, I do not have any
garment in which I can be shrouded apart from this; take it off me so that you
can shroud me in it.' He started to take it off, then he was called from behind:
Ibrahim turned, and saw a fine, horned, white ram.''
Ibn Abbas said, "We used to look for similar types of rams.''
Hisham mentioned this Hadith at length in Al-Manasik. وَنَادَيْنَاهُ
أَنْ يَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ قَدْ صَدَّقْتَ الرُّؤْيَا means, `the purpose of
your dream has been fulfilled by your laying down your son to sacrifice him.'
As-Suddi and others said that;
he passed the knife over Ismail's neck, but it did not cut him at all, because a
sheet of copper was placed between them. Ibrahim was called at that point, and
it was said: قَدْ صَدَّقْتَ الرُّؤْيَا
(You have fulfilled the dream!)
... إِنَّا كَذَلِكَ نَجْزِي الْمُحْسِنِينَ ﴿١٠٥﴾
Verily, thus do We reward the doers of good.
means, `this is how We deal with those who obey Us in things that are difficult
for them; We make for them a way out.'
And whosoever has Taqwa
of Allah, He will make a way for him to get out (from every difficulty).
And He will provide him
from (sources) he never could imagine. And whosoever puts his trust in Allah,
then He will suffice him. Verily, Allah will accomplish his purpose. Indeed
Allah has set a measure for all things. (65:2-3)
On the basis of this Ayah and this story,
some of the scholars of Usul have stated that
it is valid for a ruling to be abrogated before anyone is able to act upon it --
unlike some of the Mutazilah. The evidence
for this is obvious, because Allah commanded Ibrahim, peace be upon him, to
sacrifice his son, then He abrogated that and pointed out the ransom. The
purpose of His command had been primarily to reward His close Friend for his
patience and resolve in sacrificing his son.
I saw the horns of the ram when I entered the House (i.e., the
Ka`bah), and I forgot to tell you to cover
them up; cover them up, for there should not be anything in the House which
could distract the worshipper.'''
Sufyan said, "The horns of the ram remained hanging in the House until it was
burned, and they were burned too.''
This offers independent evidence that the one who was to be sacrificed was
Ismail, peace be upon him. The Quraysh had inherited the horns of the ram that
Ibrahim sacrificed, and they had been passed down from generation to generation,
until the Messenger of Allah was sent. And Allah knows best.
Reports which state that the One
Who was to be sacrificed was Ismail, and that this is Correct without a Doubt
Sa`id bin Jubayr, `Amir Ash-Sha`bi, Yusuf bin Mihran, Mujahid, Ata' and others
reported from Ibn Abbas that it was Ismail, peace be upon him.
Ibn Jarir narrated that Ibn Abbas said,
"The one who was ransomed was Ismail, peace be upon him. The Jews claimed that
it was Ishaq, but the Jews lied.''
It was reported that Ibn Umar said, "The sacrifice was Ismail.''
Ibn Abi Najih said, narrating from Mujahid, "It was Ismail, peace be upon him.''
This was also the view of Yusuf bin Mihran.
Ash-Sha`bi said, "It was Ismail, peace be upon him, and I saw the horns of the
ram in the Ka`bah.''
Muhammad bin Ishaq reported from Al-Hasan bin Dinar and `Amr bin `Ubayd from Al-Hasan
he did not doubt that the one of the two sons Ibrahim was commanded to sacrifice
was Ismail, peace be upon him.
So, We gave her glad
tidings of Ishaq and after Ishaq, of Ya`qub. (11:71)
He mentions the son and the son of the son, but He would not have commanded him
to sacrifice Ishaq when He had promised that this son would in turn have a son.
The one whom He commanded him to sacrifice can only have been Ismail.''
Ibn Ishaq said, "I heard him say that often.''
Ibn Ishaq reported from Buraydah bin Sufyan bin Farwah Al-Aslami that Muhammad
bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi told them that he mentioned that to Umar bin `Abd Al-`Aziz,
may Allah be pleased with him, when he was Khalifah, while he was with him in
Syria. Umar said to him,
"This is something about which I have never given any thought, but I see that it
is as you say.''
Then he sent for a man who was with him in Syria, a Jew who had become a Muslim
and was committed to Islam, and he thought that he had been one of their
scholars. Umar bin Abd Al-Aziz, may Allah be pleased with him, asked him about
Muhammad bin Ka`b said, "I was with Umar bin Abd Al-Aziz.
Umar said to him, `Which of the two sons of Ibrahim was he commanded to
He said, `Ismail. By Allah, O Commander of the faithful, the Jews know this, but
they were jealous of you Arabs because it was your father about whom Allah
issued this command and the virtue that Allah mentioned was because of his
patience in obeying the command. So they denied that and claimed that it was
Ishaq, because he is their father.'''
Abdullah bin Al-Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal, may Allah have mercy on him, said,
"I asked my father about which son was to be sacrificed -- was it Ismail or
He said, "Ismail.''
was mentioned in Kitab Az-Zuhd.
Ibn Abi Hatim said,
"I heard my father say, `The correct view is that the one who was to be
sacrificed was Ismail, peace be upon him.'''
"And it was narrated that Ali, Ibn Umar, Abu Hurayrah, Abu At-Tufayl, Sa`id bin
Al-Musayyib, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Al-Hasan, Mujahid, Ash-Sha`bi, Muhammad bin Ka`b
Al-Qurazi, Abu Ja`far Muhammad bin Ali and Abu Salih, may Allah be pleased with
them all, said that the one who was to be sacrificed was Ismail.''
Al-Baghawi said in his Tafsir,
"This was the view of `Abdullah bin Umar, Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib, As-Suddi, Al-Hasan
Al-Basri, Mujahid, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi and Al-Kalbi.''
This was also reported from Ibn Abbas and from Abu `Amr bin Al-`Ala'.
We gave him the glad tidings of Ishaq -- a Prophet from the righteous.
having given the glad tidings of the one who was to be sacrificed, who was
Ismail, Allah immediately follows that with mention of the glad tidings of his
brother Ishaq. This is also mentioned in Surah Hud
(11:71) and in Surah Al-Hijr (15:53-55)
نَبِيًّا (a Prophet),means, from
him there will come a righteous Prophet.
It was said: "O Nuh!
Come down (from the ship) with peace from Us and blessings on you and on the
people who are with you, but people to whom We shall grant their pleasures (for
a time), but in the end a painful torment will reach them from Us.'' (11:48)
Allah tells us how He blessed Musa and Harun with Prophethood and how He saved
them, along with those who believed, from the oppression of Fir`awn and his
people, who had persecuted them by killing their sons and sparing their women,
and by forcing them to do the most menial tasks, then ultimately He caused them
to prevail over them and to seize their lands and their wealth and all that they
had spent their entire lives amassing. Then Allah revealed to Musa the Clear and
Mighty Book, which is the Tawrah, as Allah
Qatadah and Muhammad bin Ishaq said, "Ilyas is another name for Idris.''
Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abdullah bin Mas`ud, may Allah be pleased with him,
"Ilyas is Idris.''
This was also the view of Ad-Dahhak.
Wahb bin Munabbih said,
"He is Ilyas bin Yasin bin Finhas bin Al-Izar bin Harun bin Imran. Allah sent
him to the Children of Israel after Hizqil (Ezekiel), may peace be upon them
They had started to worship an idol called Ba`l,
and he called them to Allah, may He be exalted, and forbade them to worship
anyone besides Him. Their king believed in him, then he apostatized, and they
persisted in their misguided ways, and not one person among them believed in
him. So he prayed to Allah against them, and Allah withheld the rain from them
for three years.
Then they asked him to relieve them from that, and promised that they would
believe in him if rain came to them. So he prayed to Allah for them, and the
rains came, but they persisted in their evil ways of disbelief. So he asked
Allah to take him to Him.
Al-Yasa` bin Akhtub had grown up under his care, may peace be upon them both.
So Ilyas was commanded to go to such and such a place, and whatever mount came
to him, he was to ride on it and not to give it away. A horse of fire was
brought to him, so he rode it, and Allah clothed him with light and covered him
with feathers, and he used to fly with the angels as a human angel, heavenly yet
is what was narrated by Wahb bin Munabbih from the People of the Book;
Allah tells us that He sent His servant and Messenger Lut, peace be upon him, to
his people, and they denied him, so Allah saved him from among them, him and his
family with the exception of his wife, who was destroyed along with her people.
Allah destroyed them with different kinds of punishments, and made their
vicinity a foul, stinking lake which is on a well-traveled route where people
pass by night and day (i.e., the Dead Sea, which lays close to the cities of
Sodom and Gomorrah on the highway between Arabia and Syria.
This was because the ship was being pounded by the waves on all sides, and they
were at risk of drowning, so they drew lots, and whoever lost would be thrown
overboard so as to lighten the load. The Prophet of Allah Yunus, peace be upon
him, lost the draw three times, but they did not want to throw him overboard. He
took off his garment so that he could throw himself into the sea, and they tried
to stop him.
a (big) fish swallowed him as he had done an act worthy of blame.
Then Allah commanded a large fish from the Green Sea (i.e., Mediterranean Sea)
to cleave the oceans and come and swallow Yunus, peace be upon him, without
cutting his flesh or breaking his bones. The fish came and Yunus, peace be upon
him, threw himself overboard, and the fish swallowed him and took him away,
traveling through all the seas with him. When Yunus had stayed for some time in
the fish's belly, he thought that he had died; then he moved his head and legs
and arms, and saw that he was alive. He prayed in the belly of the fish, and one
of the things he said in his main prayer was:
"O Lord, I have taken as a place of worship to You a place which no other person
They differed as to how long he spent in the belly of the fish.
Some said three days; this was the view of Qatadah.
Some said seven days; this was the view of Ja`far As-Sadiq, may Allah be pleased
Some said forty days; this was the view of Abu Malik.
Mujahid said, narrating from Ash-Sha`bi, "It swallowed him in the morning and
cast him forth in the evening.''
Ibn Mas`ud and Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with them both, Mujahid, Ikrimah,
Sa`id bin Jubayr, Wahb bin Munabbih, Hilal bin Yasaf, Abdullah bin Tawus, As-Suddi,
Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, Ata' Al-Khurasani and several others, all said that;
"gourd means squash."
Some of them mentioned that the squash has a number of benefits: it grows
quickly, its leaves offer shade because of their large size and smooth texture,
flies do not come near it, and its fruits provide good nourishment; they may be
eaten raw or cooked, and both the pulp and the peel may be eaten.
It was reported that the Messenger of Allah used to like squash and would look
for it wherever it was on the serving dish.
Was there any town (community) that believed, and its faith (at that moment)
saved it -- except the people of Yunus; when they believed, We removed from them
the torment of disgrace in the life of the (present) world, and permitted them
to enjoy for a while. (10:98)
And when the news of
(the birth of) a female (child) is brought to any of them, his face becomes
dark, and he is filled with inward grief! (16:58), i.e., that upsets him, and he
would only choose sons for himself.
Allah says: `Then how can they attribute to Allah the share that they would not
choose for themselves'
-they said about the
angels, which formed the utmost disbelief and falsehood.
-They said that they
were the daughters of Allah and that Allah had offspring -- exalted and
sanctified be He above that.
-Then they made
these offspring female, then they worshipped them instead of Allah, exalted and
sanctified be He -- any of which on its own would be sufficient to condemn them
to spend eternity in Hell.
They have hearts
wherewith they understand not, and they have eyes wherewith they see not, and
they have ears wherewith they hear not (the truth). They are like cattle, nay
even more astray; those! They are the heedless ones. (7:179)
This is the parable of the people who follow the belief and ideas of Shirk,
disbelief and misguidance, as Allah says:
means, `we stand in rows and glorify the Lord, praising Him, sanctifying Him and
declaring Him to be above any faults or shortcomings. We are servants of Him and
in need of Him, humbling ourselves before Him.'
The Quraysh wished that They could
have a Reminder as had the Men of old
And they swore by Allah
their most binding oath that if a warner came to them, they would be more guided
than any of the nations (before them); yet when a warner came to them, it
increased in them naught but flight (from the truth). (35:42)
Lest you should say:"The
Book was sent down only to two sects before us, and for our part, we were in
fact unaware of what they studied.''
Or lest you should
say:"If only the Book had been sent down to us, we would surely have been better
guided than they.''
So now has come unto you
a clear proof from your Lord, and a form of guidance and a mercy.
Who then does more wrong
than one who rejects the Ayat of Allah and turns away therefrom We shall requite
those who turn away from Our Ayat with an evil torment, because of their turning
verily, Our Word has gone forth of old for Our servants, the Messengers, that
they verily would be made triumphant,
meaning, `in this world and in the Hereafter, as We have already stated that
they would prevail over their people who disbelieved in them and went against
them, and how Allah destroyed the disbelievers and saved His believing servants.
meaning, `they seek to hasten on the punishment because they disbelieve in you,
and Allah is angry with them because of that and will make them suffer the
consequences, and because of their disbelief and stubbornness, He will hasten on
all the praises and thanks be to Allah, Lord of all that exists.
means, praise be to Him at the beginning and end of all things. Because
Tasbih (glorification) implies a declaration
of being free from all shortcomings, the two ideas appear together here and in
many places in the Qur'an.
Glorified be your Lord, the Lord of Al-`Izzah!
(He is free) from what they attribute unto Him! And
Salam (peace!) be on the Messengers! And all the praises and thanks be to
Allah, Lord of all that exists.