An-Nasa'i recorded that A'ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said,
"The Messenger of Allah used to fast until we would say, `He does not want to
break fast,' and he would not fast until we would say, `He does not want to
fast.' And he used to recite Al-Isra' and
Az-Zumar every night.''
Order for Tawhid and the Refutation of Shirk
Allah tells us that the revelation of this Book, which is the magnificent Qur'an,
is from Him, and is truth in which there is no doubt whatsoever.
And truly, this is a
revelation from the Lord of the creatures, which the trustworthy Ruh (Jibril)
has brought down upon your heart that you may be (one) of the warners, in the
plain Arabic language. (26:192-195)
Verily, We have sent down
the Book to you in truth. So, worship Allah by doing religious deeds sincerely
for Him only.
means, so worship Allah Alone with no partner or associate, and call mankind to
that, and teach them that it is not right to worship anyone or anything except
Him Alone, and He has no partner, equal or rival.
"We worship them only that
they may bring us near to Allah."
meaning what motivates them to worship them is the fact that they made their
idols in the image of the angels -- or so they claim -- and when they worship
those images it is like worshipping the angels, so that they will intercede with
Allah for them to help and give them provision and other worldly needs. As far
as the resurrection is concerned, they denied it and did not believe in it.
Qatadah, As-Suddi and Malik said, narrating from Zayd bin Aslam and Ibn Zayd:
إِلَّا لِيُقَرِّبُونَا إِلَى اللَّهِ زُلْفَى
means, "So that they may intercede for us and bring us closer to Him.''
During Jahiliyyah, they used to recite the
following for their Talbiyah when they
"At Your service, You have no partner except the partner You have; he and all
that he owns belong to You.''
This pretentious argument which the idolators of all times, ancient and modern,
used as evidence is what the Messengers, may the blessings and peace of Allah be
upon them all, came to refute and forbid, and to call people to worship Allah
Alone with no partner or associate. This is something that the idolators
themselves invented; Allah did not give them permission for it, nor does He
approve of it; indeed, He hates it and forbids it.
And We did not send any
Messenger before you but We revealed to him (saying): "None has the right to be
worshipped but I (Allah), so worship Me.'' (21:25)
And Allah tells us that the angels in the heavens, those who are close to Him
and others, are all servants who submit humbly to Allah. They do not intercede
with Him except by His leave for the one with whom He is pleased. They are not
like the princes and ministers of their (the idolators') kings who intercede
with them without their permission for both those whom the kings like and those
whom they hate.
فَلاَ تَضْرِبُواْ لِلَّهِ الاٌّمْثَالَ
So put not forward
similitudes for Allah. (16:74)
Exalted be Allah far above that.
... إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَهُمْ ...
Verily, Allah will judge
means, on the Day of Resurrection,
... فِي مَا هُمْ فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ ...
concerning that wherein
means, He will judge between His creation on the Day of Resurrection and will
reward or punish each person according to his deeds.
But glory be to Him! He is
Allah, the One, the Irresistible.
means, exalted and sanctified be He above the idea that He could have any
offspring, for He is the One, the Only, the Unique, the Self-Sufficient Master
to Whom everything is enslaved and is in need of. He is the One Who is
independent of all else, Who has subjugated all things and they submit humbly to
Him. Blessed and exalted be He far above what the wrongdoers and deniers say.
And He has sent down for
you of cattle eight pairs.
means, He has created for you from among the cattle, eight pairs. These are the
ones that are mentioned in Surah Al-An`am,
eight kinds -- a pair of sheep, a pair of goats, a pair of camels and a pair of
... يَخْلُقُكُمْ فِي بُطُونِ أُمَّهَاتِكُمْ ...
He creates you in the wombs
of your mothers,
means, He forms you in your mothers' wombs.
... خَلْقًا مِن بَعْدِ خَلْقٍ ...
creation after creation.
Everyone of you is originally a Nutfah, then
he becomes an `Alaqah, then he becomes a
Mudghah, then he is created and becomes flesh
and bones and nerves and veins, and the Ruh
(soul) is breathed into him, and he becomes another type of creation.
فَتَبَارَكَ اللَّهُ أَحْسَنُ الْخَـلِقِينَ
So Blessed is Allah, the
Best of creators. (23:14)
... فِي ظُلُمَاتٍ
in three veils of darkness,
means, in the darkness of the womb, the darkness of the placenta which blankets
and protects the child, and the darkness of the belly.
This was the view of Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Mujahid, Ikrimah,
Abu Malik, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Ibn Zayd.
... ذَلِكُمُ اللَّهُ رَبُّكُمْ ...
Such is Allah your Lord.
means, the One Who created the heavens and the earth and everything in between,
and created you and your forefathers, is the Lord.
... لَهُ الْمُلْكُ ...
His is the kingdom,
i.e. To Him belong sovereignty and control over all of that.
... لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ...
La ilaha illa Huwa.
means, no one else should be worshipped except Him alone with no partner or
... فَأَنَّى تُصْرَفُونَ
How then are you turned
means, how can you worship anything besides Him? What has happened to your
And when harm touches
man, he invokes Us, lying on his side, or sitting or standing. But when We have
removed his harm from him, he passes on as if he had never invoked Us for a harm
that touched him! (10:12)
fearing the Hereafter and
hoping for the mercy of his Lord.
means, in his worship he feels both fear and hope. Both are essential in
worship, and fear should be stronger during one's lifetime.
Allah says: يَحْذَرُ الْآخِرَةَ وَيَرْجُو رَحْمَةَ رَبِّهِ
(fearing the Hereafter and hoping for the mercy of his Lord), At the time of
death, hope is uppermost, as Imam `Abd bin Humayd recorded in his Musnad from
Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, who said,
"The Messenger of Allah entered upon a man who was dying, and said to him,
(How do you feel?)
are those who will lose
themselves and their families on the Day of Resurrection.
means, they will be separated and will never meet again, whether their families
have gone to Paradise and they have gone to Hell, or all of them have gone to
Hell, they will never meet or feel happiness again.
Those who avoid At-Taghut
by not worshipping them,
was revealed concerning Zayd bin `Amr bin Nufayl and Abu Dharr and Salman Al-Farisi,
may Allah be pleased with them.
The correct view is that it includes them and all others who avoided worshipping
idols and turned to the worship of Ar-Rahman.
These are the people for whom there is good news in this world and in the
The people of Paradise will look towards each other in the raised
places of Paradise as you look at the high, bright stars which remain on the
horizon. Such will be the difference in superiority which some of them have over
They said, "O Messenger of Allah, are those the abodes of the Prophets?''
39:21 See you not that Allah sends down water from the sky, and
causes it to penetrate the earth, as water springs, and afterward
thereby produces crops of different colors, and afterward they wither
and you see them turn yellow; then He makes them dry and broken pieces.
إِنَّ فِى ذَلِكَ لَذِكْرَى لاٌّوْلِى الاٌّلْبَـبِ
Verily, in this is a reminder for men of understanding.
Verily, in this is a
reminder for men of understanding.
means, those who are reminded by this and who learn the lesson from it, that
this world is like this -- it is green and fresh and beautiful, then it will
become old and ugly. The young man will become a weak, senile old man, and after
all of that comes death. The blessed one is the one whose state after death will
be good. Allah often likens the life of this world to the way He sends down
water from the sky and crops and fruits grow thereby, then they become dry and
And put forward to them
the example of the life of this world: it is like the water (rain) which We send
down from the sky, and the vegetation of the earth mingles with it, and becomes
fresh and green. But (later) it becomes dry and broken pieces, which the winds
scatter. And Allah is able to do everything. (18:45)
The People of Truth and the People
of Misguidance are not Equal
Is he who was dead and
We gave him life and set for him a light (i.e. Belief) whereby he can walk
amongst men -- like him who is in the darkness (i.e., disbelief) from which he
can never come out. (6:122)
Allah has sent down the
Best Statement, a Book, its parts resembling each other (and) oft-repeated.
Mujahid said, "This means that the entire Qur'an's parts resemble each other and
Qatadah said, "One Ayah resembles another and
one letter resembles another.''
Ad-Dahhak said, "It is oft-repeated so that people will understand what their
Lord tells them.''
Ikrimah and Al-Hasan said,
"There may be an Ayah in one Surah, and
another Ayah in another Surah that resembles
Sa`id bin Jubayr narrated from Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him:
"Oft-repeated means that parts of the Qur'an resemble one another and repeat one
Some of the scholars said that it was narrated from Sufyan bin `Uyaynah that
means, that some passages of the Qur'an may sometimes refer to one thing, so
they resemble one another, and sometimes they mention a thing and its opposite.
Such as when the believers then the disbelievers are mentioned, or when Paradise
then Hell are described, and so on, and this is the meaning of oft-repeated.
Verily, the most
righteous will be in delight; and verily, the most wicked will be in the blazing
Fire (Hell). (82:13-14)
كَلَّا إِنَّ كِتَابَ
الفُجَّارِ لَفِي سِجِّينٍ (Nay! Truly, the Record
of the most wicked is (preserved) in Sijjin),
until كَلَّا إِنَّ كِتَابَ الْأَبْرَارِ لَفِي عِلِّيِّينَ (Nay! Verily, the Record
of the most righteous is (preserved) in `Illiyyin),
هَذَا ذِكْرٌ وَإِنَّ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ لَحُسْنَ مَآبٍ (This is a Reminder. And
verily, for those who have Taqwa is a good
final return (Paradise)), until; هَذَا وَإِنَّ لِلطَّاغِينَ لَشَرَّ مَآبٍ
(This is so! And for those who transgress, there will be an evil final return
And there are other similar passages. All of this has to do with it being
oft-repeated, i.e., when two meanings are referred to. But when a passage is
about one thing, with some parts of it resembling others, this is;
"its parts resembling each other.''
This is not the same as the Mutashabihat
mentioned in the Ayah:
The skins of those who fear
their Lord shiver from it. Then their skin and their heart soften to the
remembrance of Allah.
means, this is the description of the righteous, when they hear the Words of the
Compeller, the Protector, the Almighty, the Oft-Forgiving, because they
understand the promises and warnings contained therein. The frightening words
and threats make their skin shiver from fear.
ثُمَّ تَلِينُ جُلُودُهُمْ وَقُلُوبُهُمْ إِلَى ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ (Then their skin and
their heart soften to the remembrance of Allah), because of their hope for His
mercy and kindness. They are unlike others, the wicked, immoral sinners, in a
number of ways:
-First They listen
to the recitation of the Ayat (of the Qur'an),
while those (sinners) listen to poetic verse recited by female singers.
-Second When the
Ayat of Ar-Rahman
are recited to them, they fall down in prostration weeping, with the proper
attitude of fear, hope, love, understanding and knowledge, as Allah says:
The believers are only
those who, when Allah is mentioned, feel a fear in their hearts and when His
Ayat are recited unto them, they increase their faith; and they put their trust
in their Lord; Who perform the Salah and spend out of that We have provided
them. It is they who are the believers in it.
For them are grades of
dignity with their Lord, and forgiveness and a generous provision (i.e.,
And those who, when they
are reminded of the Ayat of their Lord, fall not on them (as if they were) deaf
and blind. (25:73)
When they hear the Ayat of Allah, they are
not too busy to pay attention to them; they listen to them and understand their
meanings. So they act upon them and prostrate when they hear them, out of
understanding, not out of ignorance and blind following of others.
- Third they adhere to the correct etiquette when they listen to them. As the
Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, used to do when they listened to the
words of Allah recited by the Messenger of Allah. Their skin would shiver, and
their hearts would soften to the remembrance of Allah. They did not shout or do
other actions that are not natural; on the contrary, they would sit quietly with
the proper attitude of fear, in an unparalleled fashion. They attained the
victory of praise from their Lord in this world and the Hereafter.
Abdur-Razzaq said, "Ma`mar told us that Qatadah, may Allah have mercy on him,
تَقْشَعِرُّ مِنْهُ جُلُودُ الَّذِينَ يَخْشَوْنَ رَبَّهُمْ ثُمَّ تَلِينُ
جُلُودُهُمْ وَقُلُوبُهُمْ إِلَى ذِكْرِ and said,
`This is the characteristic of the friends of Allah; Allah has described them in
this manner, saying that their skin shivers, their eyes weep and their hearts
find rest to the remembrance of Allah. He did not say that they lose their minds
and swoon; that is the characteristic of the followers of innovation, and that
comes from the Shaytan.'''
So Allah made them to taste
the disgrace in the present life,
means, by means of the punishment and revenge which He sent down upon them, and
the rejoicing of the believers for what happened to them. So, let those who are
addressed beware, for they have rejected the noblest of the Messengers and the
Seal of the Prophets. And what Allah has promised them of severe punishment in
the Hereafter is worse than whatever befell them in this world.
Allah puts forth a parable:
a man belonging to many partners disputing with one another,
meaning, they were disputing concerning that slave in whom they all had a share.
... وَرَجُلًا سَلَمًا لِّرَجُلٍ ...
and a (slave) man belonging
entirely to one master.
means, no one owned him except that one man.
... هَلْ يَسْتَوِيَانِ مَثَلًا ...
Are those two equal in
meaning, they are not the same.
By the same token, the idolator who worships other gods besides Allah and the
sincere believer who worships none besides Allah, with no partner or associate,
are not equal. What comparison can there be between them?
Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Mujahid and others said, "This
Ayah is the parable of the idolator and the
Because this parable is so clear and obvious,
Allah then says:
... الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ ...
All the praises and thanks
be to Allah!
i.e., for establishing proof against them.
... بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ
But most of them know not.
means, and for this reason they associate others in worship with Allah.
The fact that the Messenger of
Allah and Quraysh will die, and how They will dispute before Allah
Muhammad is no more than
a Messenger and indeed (many) Messengers have passed away before him. If he dies
or is killed, will you then turn back on your heels? And he who turns back on
his heels, not the least harm will do to Allah; and Allah will give reward to
those who are grateful. (3:144)
The meaning of this Ayah is that you will
certainly depart this world and be gathered before Allah in the Hereafter. You
will dispute the issues of Tawhid and
Shirk before Allah, things over which you
disputed in this world, and He will judge between you with truth, and He is the
Judge, the All-Knowing. So, He will save the sincere believers who worship Him
alone, and He will punish the disbelievers who deny His Oneness and associate
others in worship with Him.
Although this Ayah speaks about the believers
and disbelievers, and how they will dispute in the Hereafter, it also includes
all disputants in this world, for their disputes will come back to them in the
Ibn Abi Hatim, may Allah have mercy on him, recorded that Ibn Az-Zubayr, may
Allah be pleased with him, said, "When the Ayah
Yes, they will be repeated until everyone who is entitled will
have his rights restored to him.
Az-Zubayr, may Allah be pleased with him, said, "By Allah, it is a very serious
It was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi, who said "Hasan Sahih.''
Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said:
ثُمَّ إِنَّكُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ عِندَ رَبِّكُمْ تَخْتَصِمُون
(Then, on the Day of Resurrection, you will be disputing before your Lord),
the truthful one will dispute with the liar, the oppressed will dispute with the
oppressor, the one who is guided will dispute with the one who is misguided and
the weak will dispute with the arrogant.
Ibn Mandah recorded in Kitab Ar-Ruh that Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with
"The people will dispute on the Day of Resurrection, to the extent that the soul
will dispute with the body. The soul will say to the body, `You did such and
such,' and the body will say to the soul, `You told me to do it and you tempted
Then Allah will send an angel to judge between them, and he will say, `You two
are like a man who cannot walk but can see, and a man who cannot see but can
They went into a garden and the one who could not walk said to the one who was
blind, `I see fruit there, but I cannot reach it.'
The blind man said, `Climb on me and get it.'
So he climbed on him and got it. So which of them is the wrongdoer
They will say, `Both of them.'
The angel will say to them, `You have passed judgement against yourselves.'
The body was a means of transportation for the soul.''
Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Sa`id bin Jubayr said that Ibn Umar, may Allah be
pleased with him, said,
"This Ayah was revealed and we did not know
what it was revealed about: ثُمَّ إِنَّكُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ عِندَ رَبِّكُمْ تَخْتَصِمُون (Then,
on the Day of Resurrection, you will be disputing before your Lord).''
"We said, what will we dispute about? There is no dispute between us and the
People of the Book, so what will we dispute about until the
Then Ibn Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, said,
"This is what our Lord promised us we would dispute about.''
Punishment of the Disbelievers and Liars, and the Reward of the Sincere
The idolators uttered lies against Allah and said that there were other gods
besides Him and claimed that the angels were the daughters of Allah and that
Allah had a son -- glorified be He far above all that they say.
Moreover, they rejected the truth when it came to them on the lips of the
Messengers (peace and blessings be upon them all).
Then, who does more wrong than one who utters a lie against Allah, and denies
the truth when it comes to him!
meaning, there is no one who does more wrong than such a person, because he
combines the two aspects of falsehood, disbelief in Allah and disbelief in the
Messenger of Allah. They made false claims and rejected the truth, Allah
They are those from whom We shall accept the best of their deeds and overlook
their evil deeds. (They shall be) among the dwellers of Paradise, a promise of
truth, which they have been promised. (46:16)
Allah guides, for him there will be no misleader.
Is not Allah Almighty, Possessor of Retribution?
meaning, whoever relies on Him and turns to Him, will never be forsaken, for He
is the Almighty Who cannot be overwhelmed by another, and there is none more
severe than Him in exacting retribution on those who disbelieve in Him,
associate others in worship with Him and resist His Messenger.
Idolators admit that Allah is the Sole Creator because their gods are incapable
Say:"Tell me then, the
things that you invoke besides Allah -- if Allah intended some harm for me,
could they remove His harm Or if He (Allah) intended some mercy for me, could
they withhold His mercy?''
meaning, they cannot do any of that at all.
Here Ibn Abi Hatim recorded a narration from Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased
with him, attributing it to the Prophet:
mindful of Allah and you will find Him ever with you.
to Allah in times of ease and He will turn to you in times of difficulty.
you ask anyone for anything, then ask Allah;
you seek help from anyone, then seek help from Allah. Know that even if the
entire nation were to come together to do you some harm that Allah has not
decreed for you, they will never be able to harm you, and if they were to come
together to do you some good that Allah has not decreed for you, they will never
be able to do that. The pages have dried and the pens have been lifted.
-Strive for the sake of Allah with thankfulness and firm conviction, and know
that in patiently persevering with regard to something that you dislike there is
-Victory comes with patience, a way out comes from difficulty and with hardship
"All that we say is that some of our gods have seized you with evil. '' He said:
"I call Allah to witness and bear you witness that I am free from that which you
ascribe as partners in worship, with Him. So plot against me, all of you, and
give me no respite. I put my trust in Allah, my Lord and your Lord! There is not
a moving creature but He has the grasp of its forelock. Verily, my Lord is on
the straight path.'' (11:54-56)
It is Allah Who takes away the souls at the time of their death,
and those that die not during their sleep. He keeps those (souls) for
which He has ordained death and sends the rest for a term appointed.
your duty is only to
convey and on Us is the reckoning. (13:40)
is the One Who causes Death and gives Life
Then Allah tells us that He is in control of all things and does as He wills. He
causes men to die (the "greater death'') when He sends the angels to take men's
souls from their bodies, and He causes them to "die a lesser death'' when they
It is He, Who takes your
souls by night (when you are asleep), and has knowledge of all that you have
done by day, then He raises (wakes) you up again that a term appointed be
fulfilled, then (in the end) unto Him will be your return. Then He will inform
you of that which you used to do.
He is the Irresistible,
over His servants, and He sends guardians (angels guarding and writing all of
one's good and bad deeds) over you, until when death approaches one of you, Our
messengers (angels) take his soul, and they never neglect their duty. (6:60-61)
Here Allah mentions the two deaths, the lesser death then the greater death
in this Ayah He mentions the greater then
the lesser. Allah says:
It is Allah Who takes away
the souls at the time of their death, and those that die not during their sleep.
He keeps those (souls) for which He has ordained death and sends the rest for a
This indicates that they (the souls) meet in the higher realm, as was stated in
the Hadith attributed to the Prophet which was narrated by Ibn Mandah and
In the Two Sahihs of Al-Bukhari and Muslim, it is reported that Abu Hurayrah,
may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah said:
When anyone of you goes to bed, let him brush down the bed with
his garment, for he does not know what has come on his bed since he left it.
Then let him say,
Name, O Lord, I lay down my side and in Your Name I raise it up; if You take my
soul, have mercy on it, and if You send it back, protect it with that which You
protect Your righteous servants.''
فَيُمْسِكُ الَّتِي قَضَى عَلَيْهَا الْمَوْتَ,
means, those which have died, and He returns the others back for an appointed
As-Suddi said, "For the rest of their lives.''
Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said,
"He keeps the souls of the dead and sends back the souls of the living, and He
does not make any mistakes."
Say: "Even if they have
power over nothing whatever and have no intelligence!''
Allah condemns the idolators for taking intercessors besides Allah, namely the
idols and false gods whom they have taken on the basis of their own whims, with
no evidence or proof. These idols are not able to do anything; they have no
minds with which to think, and they cannot hear or see. They are inanimate and
are much worse off than animals.
`Say -- O Muhammad -- to these people who claim that those whom they have taken
as intercessors with Allah, that intercession is of no avail except for the one
with whom Allah is pleased and to whom He has granted permission to intercede.
The whole matter rests with Him.'
And those who did wrong, if they had all that is on the earth and
therewith as much again, they verily, would offer it to ransom
themselves therewith on the Day of Resurrection from the evil torment;
and there will become apparent to them from Allah what they had not been
"O Allah, Lord of
Jibril, Mika'il and Israfil, Creator of the heavens and the earth,
Knower of the unseen and the seen, You will judge between Your
servants concerning that wherein they differ. Guide me with regard
to that wherein there is dispute concerning the truth by Your leave,
for You guide whomsoever You will to the straight path.''
No Ransom will be accepted on the
Day of Resurrection
... Do not exult, verily, Allah likes not those who exult.
But seek, with that
(wealth) which Allah has bestowed on you, the home of the Hereafter, and forget
not your portion of lawful enjoyment in this world; and do good as Allah has
been good to you, and seek not mischief in the land. Verily, Allah likes not the
He said: "This has been
given to me only because of the knowledge I possess.''
Did he not know that
Allah had destroyed before him generations, men who were stronger than him in
might and greater in the amount (of riches) they had collected? But the
criminals will not be questioned (immediately) of their sins. (28:76-78)
Say: "O My servants who have transgressed against themselves!
Despair not of the mercy of Allah, verily, Allah forgives all sins. Truly, He is
Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.''
This Ayah is a call to all sinners, be they
disbelievers or others, to repent and turn to Allah. This Ayah tells us that
Allah, may He be blessed and exalted, will forgive all the sins of those who
repent to Him and turn back to Him, no matter what or how many his sins are,
even if they are like the foam of the sea.
This cannot be interpreted as meaning that sins will be forgiven without
repentance, because Shirk can only be forgiven for the one who repents from it.
Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said that
some of the people of Shirk killed many
people and committed Zina (illegal sexual
acts) to a great extent; they came to Muhammad and said,
"What you are saying and calling us to is good; if only you could tell us that
there is an expiation for what we have done.''
Say: "O My servants who have transgressed against themselves!
Despair not of the mercy of Allah, verily, Allah forgives all sins He does not
reckon him Truly, He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.''
This was also recorded by Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi.
All of these Hadiths indicate that what is meant is that Allah forgives all sins
provided that a person repents. Additionally, one must not despair of the mercy
of Allah even if his sins are many and great, for the door of repentance and
mercy is expansive. Allah says:
Surely, disbelievers are
those who said: "Allah is the third of the three (in a Trinity).'' But there is
no god but One, and if they cease not from what they say, verily, a painful
torment will befall on the disbelievers among them. (5:73)
Verily, those who put
into trial the believing men and believing women (by torturing them), and then
do not turn in repentance (to Allah). (85: 10)
Al-Hasan Al-Basri, may Allah have mercy on him, said,
"Look at this generosity and kindness! They killed His close friends but He
still called them to repentance and forgiveness.''
There are many Ayat on this topic.
The Two Sahihs record the Hadith of Abu Sa`id, may Allah be pleased with him,
from Messenger of Allah about the man who killed ninety-nine people.
Later on, he regretted it and asked a worshipper among the Children of Israel
whether he could repent.
He told him no, so he killed him, thus completing one hundred.
Then he asked one of their scholars whether he could repent.
He said, "What is stopping you from repenting?'' Then he told him to go to a
town where Allah was worshipped.
He set out for that town, but death came to him while he was on the road. The
angels of mercy and the angels of punishment disputed over him, so Allah
commanded them to measure the distance between the two towns; whichever he was
closer to was the one to which he belonged. They found that he was closer to the
town he was heading for, so the angels of mercy took him.
It was said that when he was dying, he moved himself (towards that town), and
Allah commanded the good town to move closer to him and the other town to move
away. This is basic meaning of the Hadith; we have quoted it in full elsewhere.
Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him,
commented on the Ayah:
Allah invites all to His forgiveness; those who claim that the Messiah is God,
those who claim that the Messiah is the son of God, those who claim that `Uzayr
is the son of God, those who claim that Allah is poor, those who claim that the
Hand of Allah is tied up, and those who say that Allah is the third of three
(Trinity). Allah says to all of these:
Yes! Verily, there came to
you My Ayat and you denied them, and were proud and were among the disbelievers.
meaning, `O you who regret what you did, My Ayat
did come to you in the world, and My proof was established against you, but you
rejected it and were too arrogant to follow it, and you were among those who
disbelieved in it.'
The Consequences for Those Who tell
Lies against Allah and for Those Who have Taqwa
Allah tells us that on the Day of Resurrection, some faces will be blackened and
some will be whitened. The faces of those who followed splits and divisions will
be blackened, and the faces of Ahlus-Sunnah
wal-Jama`ah will be whitened.
Say:"Do you order me to
worship other than Allah O you fools!''
The reason for the revelation of this Ayah
was narrated by Ibn Abi Hatim and others from Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased
with him, that the idolators in their ignorance called the Messenger of Allah to
worship their gods, then they would worship his God with him. Then these words
They made not a just estimate of Allah such as is due to Him.
means, the idolators did not give Allah His due when they worshipped others
alongside Him. He is the Almighty, and there is none mightier than Him; He is
the One Who is able to do all things; He is the Owner of all things and
everything is under His control and power.
Mujahid said, "This was revealed concerning Quraysh.''
As-Suddi said, "They did not venerate Him as He deserves to be venerated.''
Muhammad bin Ka`b said,
"If they had made a just estimate of Allah such as is due to Him, they would not
Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said:
وَمَا قَدَرُوا اللَّهَ حَقَّ قَدْرِهِ
"These are the disbeliever who did not believe that Allah had power over them.
Whoever believes that Allah is able to do all things, has made a just estimate
of Allah such as is due to Him, and whoever does not believe that, has not made
a just estimate of Allah such as is due to Him.''
Many Hadiths have been narrated concerning this Ayah
and how it and other Ayat like it are to be
interpreted and accepted without any attempts to twist or change the meaning.
Concerning the Ayah, وَمَا قَدَرُوا اللَّهَ حَقَّ قَدْرِهِ Al-Bukhari recorded that
Abdullah bin Mas`ud, may Allah be pleased with him, said,
"One of the rabbis came to the Messenger of Allah and said, `O Muhammad! We
learn that Allah will put the heavens on one finger, the earths on one finger,
the trees on one finger, the water and dust on one finger, and the rest of
creation on one finger, then He will say: I am the King.' The Messenger of Allah
smiled so broadly that his molars could be seen, in confirmation of what the
rabbi had said. Then the Messenger of Allah recited:
They made not a just
estimate of Allah such as is due to Him. On the Day of Resurrection the whole
earth will be grasped by His Hand and the heavens will be rolled up in His Right
Hand. Glorified be He, and High be He above all that they associate as partners
The Messenger of Allah said while moving his hand forward and backward:
And the earth will shine with the light of its Lord, and the Book
will be presented, and the Prophets and the witnesses will be brought
forward, and it will be judged between them with truth, and they will
not be wronged.
And the Trumpet will be
blown and all who are in the heavens and all who are on the earth will swoon
away, except him whom Allah wills.
This will be the second trumpet-blast, which will cause people to die. By this
trumpet-blast, everyone who is alive in the heavens and on earth will be caused
to die, except for him whom Allah wills. Then the souls of the remaining
creatures will be taken, until the last one to die will be the Angel of Death,
and there will be left only the Ever Living, Eternal One, Who was there in the
beginning and will be at the end, forever.
He will say three times, لِّمَنِ الْمُلْكُ الْيَوْم ("Whose is the
kingdom this day''),
then He will answer Himself: لِلَّهِ الْوَحِدِ الْقَهَّار ("It is Allah's, the One,
the Irresistible!'') (40:16)
`I am the One existing Alone, I subjugated all things and I decreed that all
things must come to an end.'
Then the first one to be brought back to life will be Israfil, and Allah will
command him to sound the Trumpet again. This will be the third trumpet-blast,
the trumpet-blast of Resurrection.
Then Allah will send `Isa bin Maryam, peace be upon him, who
resembles `Urwah bin Mas`ud Ath-Thaqafi, and he will prevail. Allah will destroy
him (the Dajjal), then after that mankind will live for seven years with no
enmity between any two people. Then Allah will send a cool wind from the
direction of Ash-Sham, which will take the soul of every person who has even a
speck of faith in his heart; even if one of them were to be inside the heart of
a mountain, it would enter upon him.''
There will be left the most evil of people, as light as birds and with the hard
hearts of wild predators. They will not recognize any good or denounce any evil.
Then Shaytan will appear to them and say,
"Will you not obey me?''
Then he will command them to worship idols and they will worship them. At that
time they will have ample provision and a good standard of living. Then the
Trumpet will be blown, and no one will hear it but he will tilt his head to
listen. The first one to hear it will be a man who is filling his water trough,
and he will die when he hears it. Then there will be no one left who has not
Then Allah will send) -- or -- send down (rain like drizzle) -- or -- shade --
An-Nu`man (one of the narrators) was not sure of its wording (from which the
bodies of the people will grow.
Then the Trumpet will be blown once more, and they will be standing, looking on.
Then it will be said, "O mankind, come to your Lord,
وَقِفُوهُمْ إِنَّهُمْ مَّسْئُولُونَ
(But stop them, verily, they are to be questioned), (37:24) Then it will be
And We shall setup
Balances of justice on the Day of Resurrection, then none will be dealt with
unjustly in anything. And if there be the weight of a mustard seed, We will
bring it. And Sufficient are We to take account. (21:47)
and We shall gather them
together on the Day of Resurrection on their faces, blind, dumb and deaf; their
abode will be Hell; whenever it abates, We shall increase for them the
fierceness of the Fire. (17:97)
... Every time a group is cast therein, its keeper will ask: "Did no warner come
to you'' They will say: "Yes, indeed a warner came to us, but we denied him and
said: `Allah never revealed anything; you are only in great error.''' And they
will say: "Had we but listened or used our intelligence, we would not have been
among the dwellers of the blazing Fire!'' (67:8-10)
which means, they will feel regret and will blame themselves.
will be said (to them): "Enter you the gates of Hell, to abide therein...''
means everyone who sees them and the situation they are in, will testify that
they deserve the punishment.
These words are not attributed to any specific person, but they are said as an
indication that the entire universe will bear witness that they deserve what
they are suffering, in accordance with the judgement of the Most Just, the
Allah says: قِيلَ ادْخُلُوا أَبْوَابَ جَهَنَّمَ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا
meaning, `to stay there forever; you will never leave or depart.'
... فَبِئْسَ مَثْوَى الْمُتَكَبِّرِينَ
(indeed) what an evil abode of the arrogant!
means, `what an evil destiny and what an evil place to stay, because of your
arrogance in this world and your refusal to follow the truth; this is what has
led you to this, what an evil state and what an evil final destination!'
those who had Taqwa will be led to Paradise in groups,
Allah tells us about the blessed believers, who will be taken to Paradise in
groups, one group after another, starting with the best of them: those who are
closest to Allah, then the most righteous, then the next best and the next best.
Each group will be with others like them, Prophets with Prophets, the true
believers with their peers, the martyrs with their counterparts, the scholars
with their colleagues, every group composed of people of the same kind.
... حَتَّى إِذَا جَاؤُوهَا ...
when they reach it,
means, when they arrive at the gates of Paradise, after passing over the
Sirat, where they will be detained on a
bridge between Paradise and Hell, and any injustices that existed between them
in this world will be settled until they have all been purified from sin through
this trial. Then permission will be granted for them to enter Paradise.
It was recorded in the Hadith about the Trumpet that when the believers reach
the gates of Paradise, they will consult one another as to who should ask
permission for them to enter. They will ask Adam, then Nuh, then Ibrahim, then
Musa, then `Isa, then Muhammad (may blessings and peace be upon them all). This
is akin to what will happen in the arena of judgement, when they will ask for
someone to intercede for them with Allah when He comes to pass judgement. This
is to show the noble position of Muhammad above the rest of mankind in all
In Sahih Muslim, it is reported that Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, said,
The Messenger of Allah said:
أَنَا أَوَّلُ شَفِيعٍ فِي الْجَنَّة
I will be the first intercessor in Paradise.
According to the wording of Muslim:
وَأَنَا أَوَّلُ مَنْ يَقْرَعُ بَابَ الْجَنَّة
I will be the first one to knock at the gates of Paradise.
Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas bin Malik, may Allah be pleased with him, said,
The first group to enter Paradise will enter looking like the
moon on the night when it is full. They will not spit there, or blow their
noses, or defecate. Their vessels and combs will be of gold and silver, their
censers will be of aloes wood and their sweat will be musk. Each of them will
have two wives, the marrow of whose shin bones will be visible from beneath the
skin because of their beauty. There will be no disputes between them and there
will be no hatred; their hearts will be as if one heart. They will glorify Allah
morning and evening.''
was also recorded by Al-Bukhari and Muslim.
Al-Hafiz Abu Ya`la recorded that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him,
The first group to enter Paradise will look like the moon on the
night when it is full. They will be followed by a group which looks like the
brightest star shining in the sky. They will not urinate or defecate or spit or
blow their noses. Their combs will be of gold, their sweat will be musk and
their censers will be of aloes wood. Their wives will be Al-Hur Al-`Iyn, and
they will all look the same, as if they are one person in the image of their
father Adam, sixty cubits tall.''
(Al-Bukhari and Muslim) also produced this from the Hadith of Jabir.
It was reported that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said,
A group of my Ummah, seventy thousand, will enter Paradise with
their faces shining like the moon on the night when it is full.
Ukkashah bin Mihsan stood up and said, `O Messenger of Allah, pray to Allah to
make me one of them.' He said,
اللْهُمَّ اجْعَلْهُ مِنْهُم
O Allah, make him one of them.
Then one of the Ansar stood up and said, `O Messenger of Allah, pray to Allah to
make me one of them.' He said,
سَبَقَكَ بِهَا عُكَّاشَة
Ukkashah has beaten you to it.''
was recorded by (Al-Bukhari and Muslim).
Hadith -- about the seventy thousand who will enter Paradise without being
brought to account -- was also recorded by Al-Bukhari and Muslim from Ibn Abbas,
may Allah be pleased with him, Jabir bin Abdullah, Imran bin Husayn, Ibn Mas`ud,
Rifa`ah bin Arabah Al-Juhani and Umm Qays bint Mihsan -- may Allah be pleased
with them all –
and also from Abu Hazim from Sahl bin Sa`d, may Allah be pleased with them, who
said that the Messenger of Allah said:
Seventy thousand or seven hundred thousand of my Ummah will
surely enter Paradise, holding on to one another, such that the first and last
of them will enter Paradise together, with their faces looking like the moon on
the night when it is full.''
when they reach it, and its gates will be opened and its keepers will say:
"Salam `Alaykum (peace be upon you)! You have done well, so enter here to abide
This is a conditional sentence that is not complete. What it implies is that
when they come to the gates of Paradise the gates will be opened for them as a
sign of honor, and the angelic gatekeepers will meet them with glad tidings,
greetings of peace and praise. Unlike the gatekeepers of Hell who will meet the
disbelievers with rebuke and reprimand, the believers will be filled with
happiness and joy, each according to his degree of luxury and delights. What
happens after this is not mentioned; it is left for the imagination to think of
its dearest wishes and be filled with hope. It is known from the Sahih Hadiths
that Paradise has eight gates.
Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said,
Whoever spends a pair of something from his wealth for the sake of Allah, will
be called from the gates of Paradise. Paradise has (several) gates. Whoever is
among the people of prayer, will be called from the gate of Prayer; whoever is
among the people of charity, will be called from the gate of Charity; whoever is
among the people of Jihad, will be called
from the gate of Jihad; whoever is among the
people of fasting, will be called from the Gate of
Abu Bakr said, `O Messenger of Allah, it does not matter from which gate one is
called, but will anyone be called from all of them?'
نَعَمْ، وَأَرْجُو أَنْ تَكُونَ مِنْهُم
Yes, and I hope that you will be one of them.''
Something similar was also recorded by Al-Bukhari and Muslim.
It was reported from Sahl bin Sa`d, may Allah be pleased with him, that the
Messenger of Allah said:
admit those of your Ummah who are not to be brought to account, through the
right-hand gate, and they will be counted among those who will enter from other
gates as well.''
By the One in Whose Hand is the soul of Muhammad, the distance
between the two gateposts of the gates of Paradise is like the distance between
Makkah and Hajar -- or Hajar and Makkah.''
According to another report: (between Makkah and Busra).
It was recorded in Sahih Muslim from `Utbah bin Ghazwan that (the
Prophet) gave them a speech in which he told them that the distance between the
two gateposts of Paradise was the distance of a forty-year journey, but there
would come a day when they would be packed with crowds of people.
Allah says, وَقَالَ لَهُمْ خَزَنَتُهَا سَلَامٌ عَلَيْكُمْ طِبْتُمْ (and its keepers will
`Alaykum (peace be upon you)! You have done well,'') meaning, `your deeds
and words were good, and your efforts were good, and your reward is good.'
The Messenger of Allah issued commands during some of his military campaigns
that it should be shouted out to the Muslims:
إِنَّ الْجَنَّةَ لَا يَدْخُلُهَا إِلَّا نَفْسٌ مُسْلِمَةٌ وفي رواية مُؤْمِنَة
“No one enters Paradise except a Muslim soul, or, according to
one report, (A believing soul.)''
Allah says, فَادْخُلُوهَا خَالِدِين (so
enter here to abide therein forever),
means, to dwell therein, never seeking any change.
they will say: "All the praises and thanks be to Allah Who has fulfilled His
promise to us...''
means, when the believers see the great reward and splendors, blessing and grand
generosity, they will say,الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي صَدَقَنَا
(All the praises and thanks be to Allah Who has fulfilled His promise to us),
`the promise which He made to us through His Messengers who called us to this in
and they will say: "All
the praises and thanks be to Allah, Who has guided us to this, and never could
we have found guidance, were it not that Allah had guided us! Indeed, the
Messengers of our Lord came with the truth.'' (7:43)
you will see the angels surrounding the Throne from all round, glorifying the
praises of their Lord.
Allah tells us how He will pass judgement on the people of Paradise and Hell,
and put each of them in the place fitting for him and for which he is suited;
this is justice from Him and He is never unjust.
Then He tells us of His angels who surround His majestic Throne, glorifying the
praises of their Lord, extolling and magnifying Him, and declaring Him to be
above any shortcomings or injustice whatsoever, for He has passed judgement in
the fairest and most just manner.
it will be said, "All the praises and thanks be to Allah, the Lord of all that
meaning, all of creation, whether animate or inanimate, will speak words of
praise to Allah, the Lord of all that exists, for His wisdom and justice. These
words are not attributed to any specific speaker, which indicates that the whole
of creation will testify to His praise.
Qatadah said, "Allah began His creation with praise, as He said,