thus We have revealed to you a Qur'an in Arabic,
meaning, plain, clear, and manifest
... لِّتُنذِرَ أُمَّ الْقُرَى وَمَنْ حَوْلَهَا
you may warn the Mother of the Towns, i.e., Makkah, and all around it,
means, all the lands, east and west.
Makkah is called Umm Al-Qura (the Mother of
the Towns) because it is nobler than all other lands, as indicated by much
evidence that has been discussed elsewhere. Among the most concise and clear
proofs of that is the report recorded by Imam Ahmad from Abdullah bin `Adi bin
Al-Hamra' Az-Zuhri, who heard the Messenger of Allah say, as he was standing in
the market place of Makkah;
Indeed in that (there)
is a sure lesson for those who fear the torment of the Hereafter. That is a Day
whereon will be gathered together, and that is a Day when all (the dwellers of
the heavens and the earth) will be present.And We delay it only for a term
On the Day when it
comes, no person shall speak except by His leave. Some among them will be
wretched and (others) blessed. (11:103-105)
Imam Ahmad recorded that Abdullah bin `Amr, may Allah be pleased with him, said,
The Messenger of Allah came out to us, holding two books in his hand. He said,
أَتَدْرُونَ مَا هذَانِ الْكِتَابَانِ؟
Do you know what these two books are?
We said, "We do not know unless you tell us, O Messenger of Allah.''
This is a book from the Lord of the worlds, containing the names
of the people of Paradise and of their fathers and tribes; all of them are
detailed, down to the last one of them, and nothing will be added or taken away
Then concerning the book in his left hand, he said:
This is the book of the people of Hell, containing their names
and the names of their fathers and tribes, all of them are detailed down to the
last one of them, and nothing will be added or taken away from it.
The Companions of the Messenger of Allah said, "Why should we strive if it is
something that is already cut and dried''
Strive with your deeds as hard as you can for middle course or
close to it, for the person who is destined for Paradise will die doing the
deeds of the people of Paradise, regardless of what he did before, and the
person who is destined for Hell will die doing the deeds of the people of Hell,
regardless of what he did before.
Then he made a gesture with his fist and said,
فَرَغَ رَبُّكُمْ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ مِنَ الْعِبَاد
Your Lord has settled the matter of His servants.
and he opened his right hand as if throwing something;
فَرِيقٌ فِي الْجَنَّة
A party in Paradise.
and he made a similar gesture with his left hand;
فَرِيقٌ فِي السَّعِير
And a party in the blazing Fire.''
This was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi, and An-Nasa'i;
said, "Hasan Sahih Gharib.''
Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Nadrah said,
"One of the Companions of the Prophet , whose name was Abu Abdullah, was visited
by some of his friends, and they found him weeping. They asked him, `What has
caused you to weep Didn't the Messenger of Allah say to you,
Allah picked up a handful in His Right Hand and another in His
other Hand, and said, "This is for this and this is for this, and I do not
`And I do
not know in which of the two handfuls I am.'''
There are several Hadiths about Al-Qadr (the Divine Decree) in the books of
Sahih, Sunan and Musnad. Including those narrated by Ali, Ibn Mas`ud, A'ishah
and a large number of Companions, may Allah be pleased with them all.
if Allah had willed, He could have made them one nation,
means, either all following guidance or all following misguidance, but He made
them all different, and He guides whomsoever He wills to the truth and He sends
astray whomsoever He wills, and He has complete wisdom and perfect proof.
have they taken protecting friends besides Him? But Allah --- He Alone is the
protector. And He Who gives life to the dead, and He is Able to do all things.
Here Allah denounces the idolators for taking other gods instead of Allah, and
declares that He is the True God, and it is not right to worship anyone except
Him Alone. He is the One Who is able to bring the dead back to life and He is
Able to do all things.
He (Allah) has ordained for you the same religion which He
ordained for Nuh, and that which We have revealed to you, and that which
We ordained for Ibrahim, Musa and `Isa saying you should establish
religion and make no divisions in it.
that which We ordained for Ibrahim, Musa and Isa,
Then He mentions those who came in between them who were the Messengers of
strong will, namely Ibrahim, Musa and Isa bin Maryam. This Ayah mentions all
five, just as they are also mentioned in the Ayah in Surah
Al-Ahzab, where Allah says:
had it not been for a Word that went forth before from your Lord for an
means, were it not for the fact that Allah had already decreed that He would
delay the reckoning of His servants until the Day of Resurrection, the
punishment would have been hastened for them in this world.
means, `so call people to this which We have revealed to you and which We
enjoined upon all the Prophets before you,' the Prophets of major ways (of
Shariah) that were followed, such as the
Messengers of strong will, and others.
... وَاسْتَقِمْ كَمَا أُمِرْتَ ...
stand firm as you are commanded,
means, `adhere firmly, you and those who follow you, to the worship of Allah as
He has commanded you.'
... وَلَا تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاءهُمْ ...
follow not their desires,
means, the desires of the idolators, in the falsehoods that they have invented
and fabricated by worshipping idols.
say: "I believe in whatsoever Allah has sent down of the Book...''
means, `I believe in all the Books that have been revealed from heaven to the
Prophets; we do not differentiate between any of them.'
... وَأُمِرْتُ لِأَعْدِلَ بَيْنَكُمُ ...
I am commanded to do justice among you.
means, when judging according to the commands of Allah.
... اللَّهُ رَبُّنَا وَرَبُّكُمْ ...
Allah is our Lord and your Lord.
means, `He is the One Who is to be worshipped, and there is no true God but He.
We affirm this willingly, and even though you do not do so willingly, everyone
in the universe prostrates to Him obediently and willingly.'
Here Allah speaks of His kindness towards His creation, in that He provides for
every last one of them and does not forget anyone. When it comes to His
provision, the righteous and the sinner are alike.
means, whoever does things for the sake of the Hereafter,
... نَزِدْ لَهُ فِي حَرْثِهِ ...
give him increase in his reward,
meaning, `We will give him strength and help him to do what he wants to do, and
We will increase it for him. So for every good, We will multiply it and give him
between ten and seven hundred good rewards,' as much as Allah wills.
whosoever desires the reward of this world, We give him thereof, and he has no
portion in the Hereafter.
means, whoever strives for the purpose of worldly gains, and never pays any heed
to the Hereafter at all, Allah will deny him the Hereafter; and in this world,
if He wills He will give to him and if He does not will, he will gain neither.
So the one who strives with this intention in mind will have the worst deal in
this world and in the Hereafter. The evidence for that is the fact that this
Ayah is reinforced by the passage in Surah Al-Isra'
in which Allah says:
Whoever desires the
quick-passing, We readily grant him what We will for whom We like. Then,
afterwards, We have appointed for him Hell; he will (enter) burn therein
disgraced and rejected.
And whoever desires the
Hereafter and strives for it, with the necessary effort due for it while he is a
believer -- then such are the ones whose striving shall be appreciated.
On each -- these as well
as those -- We bestow from the bounties of your Lord. And the bounties of your
Lord can never be forbidden.See how We prefer one above another (in this world),
and verily, the Hereafter will be greater in degrees and greater in preferment.
It was reported that Ubayy bin Ka`b, may Allah be pleased with him, said, The
Messenger of Allah said:
Give the glad tidings to this Ummah of sublimity, high status,
victory and power in the land. But whoever among them does the deeds of the
Hereafter for the sake of worldly gain, will have no portion of the Hereafter.''
Making Legislation for the
Creatures is Shirk Allah says:
have they partners with Allah who have instituted for them a religion which
Allah has not ordained?
means, they do not follow what Allah has ordained for you of upright religion;
on the contrary, they follow what their devils (Shayatin),
of men and Jinn, have prescribed for them. They instituted taboos, such as the
Bahirah, Sa'ibah, Wasilah or
Ham. They also permitted eating flesh and
blood of animals not slaughtered for consumption, gambling and other kinds of
misguidance, ignorance and falsehood. These are things that they invented during
Jahiliyyah, when they came up with all kinds
of false rulings on what was permitted and what was forbidden, and false rites
of worship and other corrupt ideas.
those who believe and do righteous deeds (will be) in the flowering meadows of
the Gardens. They shall have whatsoever they desire with their Lord.
What comparison can there be between the former and the latter How can the one
who will be in the arena of resurrection in a state of humiliation and fear,
deserving it for his wrongdoing, be compared with the one who will be in the
gardens of Paradise, enjoying whatever he wants of food, drink, clothing,
dwellings, scenery, spouses and other delights such as no eye has seen, no ear
has heard, and has never crossed the minds of men.
... ذَلِكَ هُوَ الْفَضْلُ الكَبِيرُ
is the supreme grace.
means, the ultimate victory and complete blessing.
"No reward do I ask of you for this except to be kind to me for my kinship with
means, `say, O Muhammad, to these idolators among the disbeliever of Quraysh: I
do not ask you for anything in return for this message and sincere advice which
I bring to you. All I ask of you is that you withhold your evil from me and let
me convey the Messages of my Lord. If you will not help me, then do not disturb
me, for the sake of the ties of kinship that exist between you and I.'
Al-Bukhari recorded that
Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, was asked about the Ayah:
إِلَّا الْمَوَدَّةَ فِي الْقُرْبَى
(except to be kind to me for my kinship with you). Sa`id bin Jubayr said, "To be
kind to the family of Muhammad.''
Ibn Abbas said, "No, you have jumped to a hasty conclusion. There was no clan
among Quraysh to whom the Prophet did not have some ties of kinship.''
Ibn Abbas said, "Except that you uphold the ties of kinship that exist between
me and you.''
was recorded by Al-Bukhari.
was also recorded by Imam Ahmad with a different chain of narration.
say they: "He has invented a lie against Allah!'' If Allah willed, He could have
sealed up your heart.
means, `if you had invented any lies against Him, as these ignorant people
يَخْتِمْ عَلَى قَلْبِكَ
(He could have sealed up your heart). means, `and thus caused you to forget
what had already come to you of the Qur'an.'
And if he had forged a
false saying concerning Us (Allah), We surely would have seized him by his right
hand, and then We certainly would have cut off his life artery, And none of you
could have withheld Us from (punishing) him. (69:44-47)
which means, `We would have wrought the utmost vengeance upon him, and no one
among mankind would have been able to protect him.'
Allah is more pleased with the repentance of His servant than
anyone of you who loses his riding beast in a barren land, and it was carrying
his food and drink; he despairs of ever finding it, so he comes to a tree and
lies down in its shade, having given up all hope of finding his riding beast;
then whilst he is there like that, suddenly he sees it standing near him, so he
takes hold of its reins and because of his great joy he says,
You are my slave and I am Your Lord!'' -- i.e., he makes a mistake because of
his great joy. ''
similar report was also narrated in the Sahih from Abdullah bin Mas`ud, may
Allah be pleased with him.
He answers those who believe and do righteous good deeds,
As-Suddi said, "This means, He responds to them.''
This was also the view of Ibn Jarir:
"It means that He answers their supplication for themselves, their companions
and their brothers.''
... وَيَزِيدُهُم مِّن فَضْلِهِ ...
gives them increase of His bounty.
means, He answers their supplications and gives them more besides.
Qatadah said, narrating from Ibrahim An-Nakha`i Al-Lakhmi about the Ayah: وَيَسْتَجِيبُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا
الصَّالِحَاتِ -- (this means) they
intercede for their brothers;
وَيَزِيدُهُم مِّن فَضْلِهِ
-- (this means) they intercede for their brothers' brothers.
... وَالْكَافِرُونَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ شَدِيدٌ
as for the disbelievers, theirs will be a severe torment.
-- having mentioned the believers and the great reward that is theirs, Allah
then mentions the disbelievers and the severe, painful, agonizing torment that
they will find with Him on the Day of Resurrection, the Day when they are
brought to account.
He sends down by measure as He wills. Verily, He is, in respect of His servants,
the Well-Aware, the All-Seer.
means, but He gives them provision according to what is in their best interests,
and He knows best about that. So He makes rich those who deserve to be rich, and
He makes poor those who deserve to be poor.
He it is Who sends down the rain after they have despaired, and spreads His
mercy. And He is the Protector, Worthy of all praise.''
Meaning He is the One Who is in control of His creation, taking care of what
will benefit them in this world and the Hereafter, and the consequences of all
His decrees and actions are good, for which He is worthy of all praise.
the creation of the heavens and the earth, and whatever moving creatures He has
dispersed in them both.
means, whatever He has created in them, i.e., in the heavens and the earth.
... مِن دَابَّةٍ ...
whatever moving creatures,
this includes the angels, men, Jinn and all the animals with their different
shapes, colors, languages, natures, kinds and types. He has distributed them
throughout the various regions of the heavens and earth.
... وَهُوَ ...
means, yet despite all that,
... عَلَى جَمْعِهِمْ إِذَا يَشَاء قَدِيرٌ ﴿٢٩﴾
Able to assemble them whenever He wills.
means, on the Day of Resurrection, He will gather the first and the last of
them, and bring all His creatures together in one place where they will all hear
the voice of the caller and all of them will be seen clearly; then He will judge
between them with justice and truth.
means, in the fact that Allah has subjugated the sea and He sends as much wind
as they need in order to travel, there are signs of His blessings to His
creation for everyone who is patient, i.e., at times of difficulty, and
grateful, i.e., at times of ease.
He may destroy them because of that which their (people) have earned.
means, if He wills, He may destroy the ships and drown them, because of the sins
of the people on board.
... وَيَعْفُ عَن كَثِيرٍ
He pardons much.
means, of their sins; if He were to punish them for all of their sins, He would
destroy everyone who sails on the sea.
Some of the scholars interpreted the Ayah
أَوْ يُوبِقْهُنَّ بِمَا كَسَبُوا as
meaning, if He willed, He could send the wind to blow fiercely so that it would
take the ships and divert them from their courses, driving them to the right or
the left, so that they would be lost and would not be able to follow their
This interpretation also includes the idea of their being destroyed.
This also fits the first meaning, which is that if Allah willed, He could cause
the wind to cease, in which case the ships would stop moving, or He could make
the wind fierce, in which case the ships would be lost and destroyed. But by His
grace and mercy, He sends the wind according to their needs, just as He sends
rain that is sufficient. If He sent too much rain, it would destroy their
houses, and if He sent too little, their crops and fruits would not grow.
In the case of lands such as Egypt, He sends water from another land, because
they do not need rain; if rain were to fall upon them, it would destroy their
houses and cause walls to collapse.
means, they follow His Messenger and obey His commands and avoid that which He
... وَأَقَامُوا الصَّلَاةَ ...
-- which is the greatest act of worship of Allah, may He be glorified.
... وَأَمْرُهُمْ شُورَى بَيْنَهُمْ ...
who (conduct) their affairs by mutual consultation,
means, they do not make a decision without consulting one another on the matter
so that they can help one another by sharing their ideas concerning issues such
as wars and other matters.
This is like the Ayah:
وَشَاوِرْهُمْ فِى الاٌّمْرِ
and consult them in the
The Prophet used to consult with them concerning wars and other matters, so that
they would feel confidant.
When Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, was dying, after he had
been stabbed, he entrusted the choice of the next
Khalifah to six people who were to be consulted.
They were Uthman, Ali, Talhah, Az-Zubayr, Sa`id and Abdur-Rahman bin Awf, may
Allah be pleased with them all. Then all of the Companions, may Allah be pleased
with them, agreed to appoint Uthman as their leader.
... وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ
who spend of what We have bestowed on them.
this means kindly treating the creation of Allah, starting with those who are
closest, then the next closest, and so on.
those who, when an oppressive wrong is done to them, take revenge.
means, they have the strength to take revenge on those who commit aggressive
wrong and hostile acts against them. They are not incapable of doing so and they
are not helpless; they are able to take revenge against those who transgress
against them, even though when they have the power to take revenge, they prefer
to forgive, as when Yusuf, peace be upon him, said to his brothers:
No reproach on you this
day; may Allah forgive you. (12: 92)
even though he was in a position to take revenge on them for what they had done
The Messenger of Allah forgave the eighty people who intended to do him harm
during the year of Al-Hudaybiyah, camping by
the mountain of At-Tan`im. When he overpowered them, he set them free, even
though he was in a position to take revenge on them.
He also forgave Ghawrath bin Al-Harith who wanted to kill him and unsheathed his
sword while he was sleeping. The Prophet woke up to find him pointing the sword
at him. He reproached him angrily and the sword dropped.
Then the Messenger of Allah picked up the sword and called his Companions. He
told them what had happened, and he forgave the man.
There are many similar Hadiths and reports. And Allah knows best.
When two persons indulge in abusing each other, the one who
initiated the wrongful action is to blame, unless the one who was wronged
oversteps the mark in retaliation.
... أُوْلَئِكَ لَهُم
عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ ﴿٤٢﴾
such there will be a painful torment.
means, intense and agonizing.
It was reported that Muhammad bin Wasi said, "I came to Makkah and there was a
security out post over the trench whose guards took me to Marwan bin Al-Muhallab,
who was the governor of Basrah. He said,
`What do you need?, O Abu Abdullah,'
I said, `If you can do it, I need you to be like the brother of Banu `Adiy.'
He said, `Who is the brother of Banu `Adiy?'
He said, Al-Ala' bin Ziyad; he once appointed a friend of his to a position of
authority, and he wrote to him: If you can, only go to sleep after you make sure
that there is nothing on your back (i.e., you do not owe anything to anyone),
your stomach is empty and your hands are untainted by the blood or wealth of the
Muslims. If you do that, then there will be no way (of blame) against you --
whomsoever Allah sends astray, for him there is no protector after Him.
Allah tells us that whatever He wills happens and whatever He does not will does
not happen, and no one can make it happen. Whomever He guides, none can lead
astray, and whomever He leads astray, none can guide, as He says:
they who lose themselves and their families on the Day of Resurrection.
means, they will be taken to the Fire and deprived of any pleasures in the
Hereafter. They will lose themselves, and they will be separated from their
loved ones, companions, families and relatives, and they will lose them.
And verily, when We cause man to taste of mercy from Us, he
rejoices there at; but when some evil befalls them because of the deeds
which their hands have sent forth, then verily, man (becomes) ingrate!
will have no refuge on that Day nor there will be for you any denying.
means, you will have no stronghold in which to take refuge, no place in which to
hide from Allah, for He will encompass you with His knowledge and power, and you
will have no refuge from Him except with Him.
because of the deeds which their hands have sent forth, then verily, man
means, he forgets the previous times of ease and blessings and acknowledges
nothing but the present moment. If times of ease come to him, he becomes
arrogant and transgresses, but if any difficulty befalls him, he loses hope and
is filled with despair.
This is like what the Messenger of Allah said to the women:
... if something good happens to him, he is thankful, and that is
good for him. If something bad happens to him, he bears it with patience, and
that is good for him. This does not happen to anyone except the believer.
Allah belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth. He creates what He
Whatever he wills happens, and whatever He does not will does not happen. He
gives to whomsoever He wills and withholds from whomsoever he wills; none can
withhold what He gives, and none can give what He withholds, and He creates
whatever He wills.
... يَهَبُ لِمَنْ يَشَاء إِنَاثًا ...
bestows female upon whom He wills.
means, He gives them daughters only.
Al-Baghawi said, "And among them (those who were given daughters only) was
Lut, peace be upon him.''
... وَيَهَبُ لِمَن يَشَاء الذُّكُورَ
bestows male upon whom He wills.
means, He gives them sons only.
Al-Baghawi said, "Like Ibrahim Al-Khalil,
peace be upon him, who did not have any daughters.''
means, He gives to whomsoever He wills both males and females, sons and
Al-Baghawi said, "Like Muhammad.''
... وَيَجْعَلُ مَن يَشَاء عَقِيمًا ...
He renders barren whom He wills.
means, so that he has no children at all.
Al-Baghawi said, "Like Yahya and Isa, peace
be upon them.''
So people are divided into four categories: some are given daughters, some are
given sons, some are given both sons and daughters, and some are not given
either sons or daughters, but they are rendered barren, with no offspring.
... إِنَّهُ عَلِيمٌ ...
Verily, He is the All-Knower,
means, He knows who deserves to be in which of these categories.
... قَدِيرٌ ﴿٥٠﴾
is Able (to do all things).
means, to do whatever He wills and to differentiate between people in this
This issue is similar to that referred to in the Ayah where Allah says of
Isa, peace be upon him:
وَلِنَجْعَلَهُ ءَايَةً لِّلْنَّاسِ
And (We wish) to appoint
him as a sign to mankind. (19:21)
i.e., proof for them of His power, for He created people in four different ways.
peace be upon him, was created from clay, from neither a male nor a female.
peace be upon her, was created from a male without a female.
-All other people,
besides Isa, peace be upon him, were created
from male and female,
-and this sign of
Allah was completed with the creation of Isa
bin Maryam, may peace be upon them both, who was created from a female without a
male. Allah says:
وَلِنَجْعَلَهُ ءَايَةً لِّلْنَّاسِ
And (We wish) to appoint
him as a sign to mankind. (19: 21)
This issue has to do with parents, whilst the previous issue has to do with
children, and in each case there are four categories. Glory be to the All-Knower
Who is Able to do all things.
It is not given to any human being that Allah should speak to him
unless (it be) by revelation, or from behind a veil, or (that) He sends
a Messenger to reveal what He wills by His leave. Verily, He is Most
High, Most Wise.
is not given to any human being that Allah should speak to him unless (it be) by
This refers to how Allah sends revelation. Sometimes He casts something into the
heart of the Prophet, and he has no doubt that it is from Allah, as it was
reported in Sahih Ibn Hibban that the
Messenger of Allah said: