Nay, indeed it is an
admonition. So whoever wills, let him pay attention to it. (It is) in Records
held (greatly) in honor, exalted, purified, in the hands of scribes (angels),
honorable and obedient. (80:11-16)
Shall We then take away the Reminder (this Qur'an) from you, because you are a
means, `do you think that We will forgive you and not punish you, when you do
not do as you have been commanded?'
was the view of Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Abu Salih, Mujahid and
As-Suddi, and was the view favored by Ibn Jarir.
الذِّكْرَ صَفْحًا ...
Shall We then take away the Reminder (this Qur'an) from you?
"By Allah, if this Qur'an had been taken away when the first generations of this
Ummah rejected it, they would have been
doomed, but Allah by His mercy persisted in sending it and calling them to it
for twenty years, or for as long as He willed.''
What Qatadah said is very good, and his point is that Allah, by His grace and
mercy towards His creation, did not stop calling them to the truth and to the
wise Reminder, i.e., the Qur'an, even though they were heedless and turned away
from it. Indeed, He sent it so that those who were decreed to be guided might be
guided by it, and so that proof might be established against those who were
decreed to be.
to the Prophet for the Disbelief of Quraysh
Then Allah consoles His Prophet for the disbelief of his people, and commands
him to bear it with patience.
means, smooth, stable and firm, so that you can travel about in it, and stand on
it and sleep and walk about, even though it is created above water, but He has
strengthened it with the mountains, lest it should shake.
... وَجَعَلَ لَكُمْ فِيهَا سُبُلًا ...
has made for you roads therein,
means, paths between the mountains and the valleys.
... لَّعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ
order that you may find your way.
means, in your journeys from city to city, region to region, land to land.
means, `We will return to Him after our death, and our ultimate destination is
In this Ayah, mention of earthly journeys draws attention to the journey of the
Hereafter, just as elsewhere, mention of earthly provision draws attention to
the importance of ensuring provision for the Hereafter, as Allah says:
وَتَزَوَّدُواْ فَإِنَّ خَيْرَ الزَّادِ التَّقْوَى
And take a provision
(with you) for the journey, but the best provision is the Taqwa. (2:197)
And mention of earthly garments is also used to draw attention to the raiment of
وَرِيشًا وَلِبَاسُ التَّقْوَى ذَلِكَ خَيْرٌ
and as an adornment; and
the raiment of the Taqwa, that is better. (7:26)
And they assign to Allah
share of the tilth and cattle which He has created, and they say: "This is for
Allah'' according to their claim," and this is for our partners.'' But the share
of their partners reaches not Allah, while the share of Allah reaches their
partners! Evil is the way they judge! (6:136).
Similarly, out of the two kinds of offspring, sons and daughters, they assigned
to Him the worst and least valuable (in their eyes), i.e., daughters, as Allah
if one of them is informed of the news of that which he sets forth as a parable
to the Most Gracious, his face becomes dark, and he is filled with grief!
means, if one of these people is given the news that there has been born to him
one of those which he attributes to Allah, i.e., a daughter, he hates this news
and it depresses and overwhelms him so much that he keeps away from people
because he feels so ashamed.
Allah says, so how can they dislike that so much and yet they attribute it to
creature who is brought up in adornments, and who in dispute cannot make itself
means, women are regarded as lacking something, which they make up for with
jewelry and adornments from the time of childhood onwards, and when there is a
dispute, they cannot speak up and defend themselves clearly, so how can this be
attributed to Allah
they said: "If it had been the will of the Most Gracious, we should not have
means, (they said:) `if Allah had willed, He would have prevented us from
worshipping these idols which are images of the angels who are the daughters of
Allah; He knows about this and He approves of it.'
By saying this, they combined several types of error:
attributed offspring to Allah -- exalted and sanctified be He far above that.
claimed that He chose daughters rather than sons, and they made the angels, who
are the servants of the Most Gracious, female.
worshipped them with no proof, evidence or permission from Allah. This was based
on mere opinion, whims and desires, imitation of their elders and forefathers,
and pure ignorance. They used Allah's decree as an excuse, and this reasoning
betrayed their ignorance.
denounced them for this in the strongest terms, for from the time He first sent
Messengers and revealed Books, the command was to worship Him Alone with no
partner or associate, and it was forbidden to worship anything other than Him.
And verily, We have sent
among every Ummah a Messenger (proclaiming): "Worship Allah, and avoid all false
deities.''Then of them were some whom Allah guided and of them were some upon
whom the straying was justified.So travel through the land and see what was the
end of those who denied. (16:36)
Likewise, no Messenger
came to those before them but they said: "A sorcerer or a madman!''Have they
transmitted this saying to these?Nay, they are themselves a people transgressing
beyond bounds! (51:52-53)
similarly, We sent not a warner before you to any town (people) but the
luxurious ones among them said:"We found our fathers following a certain way and
religion, and we will indeed follow their footsteps.''
(remember) when Ibrahim said to his father and his people:
Allah tells us about His servant, Messenger and close Friend, the leader of the
monotheists and the father of all subsequent Prophets, from whom Quraysh were
descended and claimed to have taken their religion.
He disowned his father's and his people's worship of idols and said:
he made it a Word lasting among his offspring,
The Word means the worship of Allah Alone with no partner or associate, and the
denunciation of all gods apart from Him, i.e., La
ilaha illallah. He left this word as an example to be followed by those
of his progeny who were guided by Allah.
... لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ
they may turn back.
means, come back to this word.
Ikrimah, Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, As-Suddi and others commented on the Ayah:
كَلِمَةً بَاقِيَةً فِي عَقِبِهِ
"This means, La ilaha illallah, and there
are still those among his offspring who say it.''
A similar view was narrated from Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him.
Ibn Zayd said, "The word of Islam,'' which refers to the same thing suggested by
How the People of Makkah turned
away from the Messenger and opposed Him, and His Response
it they who would portion out the mercy of your Lord?
meaning, the matter has nothing to do with them; it is for Allah to decide.
Allah knows best where to direct His Message, and He does not reveal it except
to the one who is the purest in heart and soul, and of the noblest descent. Then
Allah points out that He differentiates among His creation in terms of what He
gives them of wealth, provision, intellect, understanding and other visible and
were it not that mankind would have become of one community,
means, `were it not for the fact that many ignorant people would think that Our
giving them wealth was a sign that We love the person to whom We give it, and
thus they would have agreed upon disbelief for the sake of wealth.'
This is the view of Ibn Abbas, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, As-Suddi and others.
all this would have been nothing but an enjoyment of this world.
means, all that belongs to this transient world which is insignificant before
Allah. He hastens their reward for good deeds in the form of luxuries in this
world, so that when they reach the Hereafter, they will have no good merits with
Allah for which they may be rewarded, as was reported in the Sahih Hadith.
the Hereafter with your Lord is (only) for those who have Taqwa.
means, it is exclusively for them, and no one else will share it with them.
When Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, visited the Messenger
of Allah in seclusion, when he was keeping away from his wives, and he saw him
resting on a rough mat which had left marks on his side, his eyes filled with
tears and he said,
"O Messenger of Allah, look at this Chosroes and this Caesar with all that they
have, and you are the best of Allah's creation.''
The Messenger of Allah was reclining, but he sat up and said:
meaning, for this person who willfully neglects true guidance, We send to him a
Shaytan to lead him astray and show him the
path to Hell. When he comes before Allah on the Day of Resurrection, he will
complain about the Shaytan who was appointed
to accompany him.
Some of them recited it;
حَتْى إِذَا جَاءنَا (Till,
when they both come to Us), referring to the companion
Shaytan and the one whom he accompanies.
you make the deaf to hear, or can you guide the blind or him who is in manifest
means, `that is not up to you. All you have to do is convey the Message, but you
do not have to guide them. Allah guides whomsoever He wills and sends astray
whomsoever He wills, and He is Wise and Just in doing so.'
Allah's Vengeance upon the Enemies of His Messenger will surely come to pass
(if) We show you that wherewith We threaten them, then verily, We have perfect
command over them.
means, `We are able to do both,' but Allah will not take His Messenger (in
death) until He gives him the joy of seeing his enemies brought low and gives
him power and authority over them and their wealth.
was the view of As-Suddi and was the opinion favored by Ibn Jarir.
hold you fast to that which is revealed to you. Verily, you are on the straight
means, hold fast to the Qur'an which has been sent down to your heart, for it is
truth and what it leads to is truth that shows the way to the straight path that
leads to Gardens of Delight and eternal, everlasting goodness.
verily, this is a Dhikr for you and your people,
It was said that this means, `it is an honor for you and your people;'
this was the view of Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Mujahid, Qatadah,
As-Suddi and Ibn Zayd.
This means that it is an honor for them in that it was revealed in their
language, so they are the people who have the best understanding of it among
mankind and hence are obliged to be the most steadfast in adhering to its
commandments. This is how the best of them were, the first immigrants and those
who emulated them and followed them.
It was also said that the meaning of the phrase;
وَإِنَّهُ لَذِكْرٌ لَّكَ وَلِقَوْمِكَ
was that `it was sent to remind you and your people.'
The fact that they are singled out does not exclude others. This is like the
ask whom We sent before you of Our Messengers: "Did We ever appoint gods to be
worshipped besides the Most Gracious?''
means, `all the Messengers called their people to the same as that to which you
are calling mankind, namely the worship of Allah Alone with no partner or
associate, and they forbade the worship of idols and false gods.'
when he came to them with Our Ayat, behold, they laughed at them.
Here Allah tells us about His servant and Messenger Musa, peace be upon him, and
how He sent him to Fir`awn and his chiefs. That is, his governors, ministers,
leaders and followers among the Egyptians and the Children of Israel.
Allah sent him to call them to worship Allah alone, with no partner or
associate, and to forbid them from worshipping anything other than Him. He sent
him with mighty signs, such as his hand and his staff, other signs such as the
flood, locusts, Qummal, frogs and blood, and the loss of their crops and lives.
Yet despite all that they remained arrogant and stubbornly refused to follow
him; they rejected his message and made fun of it, and laughed at the one who
had brought it.
Every time one of these signs came to them, they would go and implore Musa,
... يَا أَيُّهَا السَّاحِرُ ...
meaning, expert or knowledgeable one -- this was the view of Ibn Jarir.
The scholars of that time were the sorcerers or magicians, and magic was not
regarded as something reprehensible by them at that time, so this was not a
slight on their part. They were in a state of need, so it would not have been
appropriate for them to insult him. This was a way of honoring him, as they
So We sent on them: the
flood, the locusts, the Qummal, the frogs, and the blood; manifest signs, yet
they remained arrogant, and they were of those people who were criminals.
And when the punishment
struck them, they said: "O Musa! Invoke your Lord for us because of His promise
to you. If you remove the punishment from us, we indeed shall believe in you,
and we shall let the Children of Israel go with you.
''But when We removed
the punishment from them to a fixed term, which they had to reach, behold! they
broke their word! (7:133-135)
"He was saying, `indeed I am better than this one, who is despicable'.''
Some of the grammarians of Basrah said that Fir`awn -- may the curse of Allah be
upon him -- was saying that he was better than Musa, peace be upon him. But this
is an obvious lie, may continued curses be upon him until the Day of
By describing Musa as despicable he meant -- as Sufyan said -- insignificant.
Qatadah and As-Suddi said, "He meant, weak.''
Ibn Jarir said, "He meant, he had no power, authority or wealth.''
... وَلَا يَكَادُ يُبِينُ
can scarcely express himself clearly.
means, he cannot speak clearly, he stammers and cannot speak well.
Fir`awn's description of Musa as "despicable'' is a lie; rather it is he who was
despicable and insignificant, lacking in physical, moral and religious terms,
and it is Musa who was noble, truthful, righteous and upright.
وَلَا يَكَادُ يُبِينُ
(and can scarcely express himself clearly).
This was also a lie. Although something happened to Musa's tongue when he was a
child, when it was burnt by a coal. He asked Allah to loosen the knot from his
tongue (i.e., to correct his speech defect) so that they could understand what
he said, and Allah had answered his prayer and said:
قَدْ أُوتِيتَ سُؤْلَكَ يمُوسَى
You are granted your
request, O Musa, (20:36).
It may be the case that some problem remained which he had not asked to be
relieved of, as Al-Hasan Al-Basri suggested, and that he had asked only to be
relieved of that which stood in the way of his conveying the Message. A person
cannot be blamed for physical matters over which he has no control. Even though
Fir`awn had the intelligence to understand that, he wanted to confuse and
mislead his people, who were ignorant and stupid. So he said:
meaning, to serve him and to testify that he is telling the truth. He looked
only at outward appearances and did not understand the true inner matters that
are clearer than what he focused on, if only he had understood that.
When you see that Allah gives a person what he wants even though
he is persisting in sin, that means that Allah is enticing him into destruction.
Then he recited: فَلَمَّا آسَفُونَا انتَقَمْنَا مِنْهُمْ فَأَغْرَقْنَاهُمْ
أَجْمَعِينَ (So when they angered Us,
We punished them, and drowned them all).
It was reported that Tariq bin Shihab said,
"I was with Abdullah, may Allah be pleased with him, and the issue of sudden
death was mentioned. He said, `It is a relief for the believer and a source of
regret for the disbeliever.'
Then he recited the Ayah: فَلَمَّا آسَفُونَا انتَقَمْنَا مِنْهُمْ فَأَغْرَقْنَاهُمْ
أَجْمَعِينَ (So when they angered
Us, We punished them, and drowned them all).''
Umar bin Abdul-Aziz, may Allah be pleased with him, said,
"I found that punishment comes with negligence, meaning the Ayah:
فَلَمَّا آسَفُونَا انتَقَمْنَا مِنْهُمْ فَأَغْرَقْنَاهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ
(So when they angered Us, We punished them, and drowned them all).''
when the son of Maryam is quoted as an example, behold, your people cry aloud
Several others narrated that Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Mujahid,
Ikrimah, As-Suddi and Ad-Dahhak said,
"They laughed, i.e., they were astounded by that.''
Qatadah said, "They were repelled by that and they laughed.''
Ibrahim An-Nakha`i said, "They turned away.''
The reason for this was mentioned by Muhammad bin Ishaq in As-Sirah. He said,
"According to what I have heard, the Messenger of Allah sat down one day with
Al-Walid bin Al-Mughirah in the Masjid, and
An-Nadr bin Al-Harith came and sat down with them. There were also other men
from the Quraysh in the gathering. The Messenger of Allah spoke, then An-Nadr
bin Al-Harith came up to him and the Messenger of Allah spoke to him until he
defeated him in argument. Then he recited to him and to them,
Certainly you and that
which you are worshipping now besides Allah, are (but) fuel for Hell! (Surely)
you will enter it. (21:98)
Then the Messenger of Allah got up and went to sit with Abdullah bin Al-Zab`ari
Al-Walid bin Al-Mughirah said to him, By Allah, An-Nadr bin Al-Harith could not
match the son of Abd Al-Muttalib in argument. Muhammad claims that we and these
gods that we worship are fuel for Hell.'
Abdullah bin Az-Zab`ari said,
`By Allah, if I meet with him I will defeat him in argument. Ask Muhammad
whether everyone that is worshipped instead of Allah will be in Hell with those
who worshipped him, for we worship the angels, and the Jews worship
Uzayr, and the Christians worship the Messiah
Isa bin Maryam.'
Al-Walid and those who were sitting with him were amazed at what Abdullah bin
Az-Zab`ari said, and they thought that he had come up with a good point. He said
this to the Messenger of Allah, who said:
Therefore have no doubt concerning it. And follow Me! This is the straight path.
Ibn Jarir mentioned that Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased
with him, commented on the Ayah:
وَلَمَّا ضُرِبَ ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ مَثَلًا إِذَا قَوْمُكَ مِنْهُ يَصِدُّونَ "This means the Quraysh,
when it was said to them:
Certainly you and that which you are worshipping now besides Allah, are (but)
fuel for Hell! (21:98)
are addressed to the Quraysh, for they used to worship idols and false gods --
they did not worship the Messiah so why should he be included in what the Ayah
says? What they said was only for the sake of argument; they did not really
believe in it.
Imam Ahmad, may Allah have mercy on him, recorded that Abu Umamah, may Allah be
pleased with him, said, "The Messenger of Allah said:
No people go astray after having been guided, but they resort to (futile)
Then the Messenger of Allah recited this Ayah:مَا ضَرَبُوهُ لَكَ إِلَّا جَدَلًا بَلْ هُمْ قَوْمٌ
خَصِمُونَ (They quoted not the
above example except for argument. Nay! But they are a quarrelsome people).''
It was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and Ibn Jarir.
said, "This Hadith is Hasan Sahih, we do not know it except from the Hadith of
Hajjaj bin Dinar...''
إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا عَبْدٌ أَنْعَمْنَا عَلَيْهِ ...
was not more than a servant. We granted Our favor to him,
means, Isa, peace be upon him; he was no more
than one of the servants of Allah whom Allah blessed with Prophethood and
... وَجَعَلْنَاهُ مَثَلًا لِّبَنِي
We made him an example for the Children of Israel.
means, `a sign, proof and evidence of Our power to do whatever We will.'
And there is none of the People of the Scripture but must believe in him before
his death. (4:159).
-- meaning before the death of Isa, peace be
upon him --
وَيَوْمَ الْقِيَـمَةِ يَكُونُ
And on the Day of Resurrection, he will be a witness against them (4:159)
This meaning has the support from an alternate recitation of the Ayat
وَإِنَّهُ لَعِلْمٌ لِلسَّاعَةِ
(And he shall be a known sign for (the coming of) the Hour.) means, evidence
that the Hour will surely come.
Mujahid said: وَإِنَّهُ لَعِلْمٌ
لِّلسَّاعَةِ means, sign and "One of
the signs of the Hour will be the appearance of Isa
son of Maryam before the Day of Resurrection.''
Something similar was also narrated from Abu Hurayrah, Ibn Abbas, `Abu Al-`Aliyah,
Abu Malik, Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and others.
Many Mutawatir Hadiths report that the
Messenger of Allah said that Isa will descend
before the Day of Resurrection as a just ruler and fair judge.
... فَلَا تَمْتَرُنَّ بِهَا ...
Therefore have no doubt concerning it.
means, do not doubt that it will surely come to pass.
means, they differed and became parties and factions, some who stated that he (Isa)
was the servant and Messenger of Allah -- which is true - while others claimed
that he was the son of Allah or that he himself was Allah -- glorified be Allah
far above what they say.
for the Hour that it shall come upon them suddenly while they perceive not?
means, for it is real and will inevitably come to pass, and these negligent
people are unprepared for it. When it comes, it will catch them unawares, and on
that Day they will feel the utmost regret when regret will not benefit them in
the slightest and will not afford them any protection.
Friends on that Day will be foes one to another except those who have Taqwa.
means, every friendship that exists for a purpose other than for the sake of
Allah will turn to enmity on the Day of Resurrection, except for that which is
for the sake of Allah, which will last forever.
This is like the statement of Ibrahim, peace be upon him, to his people:
You have taken (for
worship) idols instead of Allah. The love between you is only in the life of
this world, but on the Day of Resurrection, you shall disown each other, and
curse each other, and your abode will be the Fire, and you shall have no helper.
Good News for Those with Taqwa on the Day of Resurrection, and Their entry into
is the Paradise, which you have been made to inherit because of your deeds that
you used to do.
means, the righteous deeds which were the cause of your being included in the
mercy of Allah. For no one will be admitted to Paradise by virtue of their deeds
alone; that will be by the mercy and grace of Allah. But the varying ranks and
degrees of Paradise will be attained according to one's righteous deeds.
wronged them not, but they were the wrongdoers.
means, by their committing wrong actions after proof had been established
against them and Messengers had been sent to them, but they rejected them and
rebelled, so they are to be punished accordingly. And your Lord is not at all
unjust to (His) servants.
they will cry: "O Malik...'' (who is the keeper of Hell).
"Hajjaj bin Minhal told us, Sufyan bin Uyaynah told us, from Amr bin `Ata, from
Safwan bin Ya`la that his father, may Allah be pleased with him, said, `I heard
the Messenger of Allah reciting on the Minbar:
Glorified is the Lord of the heavens and the earth, the Lord of the Throne!
Exalted be He from all that they ascribe (to Him).
meaning, exalted and sanctified and glorified be the Creator of all things far
above having any offspring, for He is Unique, One and Eternally Self-Sufficient.
There is none equal to Him or like Him, and He does not have any offspring.
Blessed be He to Whom belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth, and all
that is between them,
means, He is their Creator and Sovereign, the One Who is controlling them with
none to resist or oppose His rule. Blessed and exalted be He far above the
notion of His having a child. He is eternally free of all faults and
shortcomings, because He is the Lord, the Exalted, the Almighty, the Sovereign
of all things, Who is in control of all affairs.
... وَعِندَهُ عِلْمُ السَّاعَةِ ...
with Whom is the knowledge of the Hour,
means, no one knows when it will happen except Him.
... وَإِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ
to Whom you (all) will be returned.
means, and each person will be requited for his deeds; if they are good, then he
will be rewarded, and if they are bad, then he will be punished.
if you ask them who created them, they will surely say: "Allah.''
then are they turned away?
means, `if you ask these idolators who associate others in worship with Allah,'
مَّنْ خَلَقَهُمْ لَيَقُولُنَّ اللَّهُ
means, they will admit that He Alone is the Creator of all things and He has no
partner in that. Yet despite that they still worship others alongside Him who
have nothing and are able to do nothing. This is the utmost foolishness and
Allah says: فَأَنَّى يُؤْفَكُونَ
(How then are they turned away).
means, `do not respond to them in the same evil manner in which they address
you; but try to soften their hearts and forgive them in word and deed.'
... فَسَوْفَ يَعْلَمُونَ
they will come to know.
This is a warning from Allah for them. His punishment, which cannot be warded
off, struck them, and His religion and His word was supreme. Subsequently Jihad
and striving were prescribed until the people entered the religion of Allah in
crowds, and Islam spread throughout the east and the west. And Allah knows best.
This is the end of the Tafsir of Surah Az-Zukhruf.
All praise and thanks are due to Allah and in Him is all strength and