The Beginning of the Mufassal
Section of the Qur'an
This Surah is the first Surah in the Mufassal
section of the Qur'an, according to the correct view.
It is said that the Mufassal starts with
Some common people say that the Mufassal
starts with Surah `Amma An-Naba, (Surah 78),
however, this is not true because none of the respected scholars ever supported
Aws (bin Hudhayfah) said; I asked the Companions of Allah's Messenger that how
they divided the Qur'an.
They said; `Three, five, seven, nine, eleven, thirteen, and the
Mufassal section as one.' ''
This was recorded by Ibn Majah and Imam Ahmad.
If one counts forty-eight Surahs, the next Surah will be Surah
Qaf. The details are as follows:
The first three Surahs are: (Surah 2-4)
The next five Surahs are: (Surah 5-9).
The seven next Surahs are: (Surah 10-16)
The nine next Surahs are: (Surah 17-25)
The next eleven Surahs are: (Surah 26-36)
The next thirteen Surahs are: (Surah 37-49)
After that comes the Mufassal section,
according to the Companions, may Allah be pleased with them all.
Therefore, Surah Qaf is the first of the
Mufassal, just as we stated, and all praise
is due to Allah and all favors are from Him.
Virtues of Surah Qaf
Imam Ahmad recorded that Umar bin Al-Khattab asked Abu Waqid Al-Laythi,
"What did the Prophet recite during the `Id
Abu Waqid said, "Surah Qaf and Surah
Iqtarabat i.e. Surah
Muslim and the Four Collectors of the Sunan collected this Hadith.
Imam Ahmad recorded that Umm Hisham bint Harithah said,
"For around two years, or a year and a part of another year, our oven and the
oven of the Prophet was one and the same. I memorized Surah,
ق وَالْقُرْآنِ الْمَجِيدِ
(Qaf. By the Glorious Qur'an), from the
tongue of the Messenger of Allah who used to recite it every Friday while
standing on the Minbar delivering the Friday
sermon to the people.''
Muslim collected this Hadith.
Abu Dawud also recorded that the daughter of Al-Harith bin An-Numan said,
"I only memorized Surah Qaf from the mouth of
the Messenger of Allah who used to recite it in every Friday
Khutbah. Our oven and the oven of the
Messenger was one and the same.''
Muslim and An-Nasa'i collected this Hadith.
Therefore, the Messenger of Allah used to recite this Surah during large
gatherings such as the `Ids and during Friday
sermons. He did so because this Surah contains news of the beginning of
creation, Resurrection, the Return, Standing (before Allah), the Reckoning,
Paradise, the Fire, Allah's reward and punishment, lessons of encouragement, and
lessons of discouragement. Allah knows best.
meaning, `We know what the earth consumes of their dead bodies.' Where and how
the bodies disintegrated, what they turned into and how they have become, all of
this is never absent from Allah's knowledge.
... وَعِندَنَا كِتَابٌ حَفِيظٌ
and with Us is a Book
`that keeps all records. Therefore, Our knowledge is encompassing and the Book
of decrees has everything precisely recorded in it.
Al-`Awfi narrated that Abdullah bin Abbas commented on the statement of Allah
the Exalted, قَدْ عَلِمْنَا مَا تَنقُصُ الْأَرْضُ
(We know that which the earth takes of them),
"It refers to what the earth consumes of their flesh, skin, bones and hair.''
A similar view was recorded from Mujahid, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and several others.
Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored, explained the reason behind their
disbelief, rebellion and discounting the possibility of what is truly possible,
Who has created the
seven heavens one above another; you can see no fault in the creation of the
Most Gracious. Then look again: "Can you see any rifts'' Then look again and yet
again, your sight will return to you in a state of humiliation and worn out.
fatigued, unable to discover any imperfection or shortcomings.
An insight and a Reminder
for every servant who turns to Allah in repentance.
Allah says that observing the creation of the heavens and earth and all the
great things that He has placed in them provides insight, proof and a lesson for
every penitent servant who submits in humbleness and repentance to Allah feeling
fear, in awe of Him.
A provision for (Allah's)
servants. (for (Allah's) creation),
... وَأَحْيَيْنَا بِهِ
بَلْدَةً مَّيْتًا ...
And We give life therewith
to a dead land.
this is the land that was barren. However, when rain falls upon it, it is
stirred to life; it swells and produces all of the lovely pairs such as flowers
and the like -- amazing on account of their beauty. All of this comes into
existence after the land was without greenery, yet it was stirred back to life
and became green. Indeed, this should provide proof of Resurrection after death
and disintegration; thus Allah resurrects the dead. This sign of Allah's ability
that is seen and witnessed is greater than the denial of those who discount the
possibility of Resurrection. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said in other
And among His signs (is
this), that you see the earth barren; but when We send down water to it, it is
stirred to life and growth. Verily, He Who gives it life, surely is able to give
life to the dead. Indeed He is Able to do all things. (41:39)
Denied before them the
people of Nuh, and the Dwellers ofRass,
Allah the Exalted warns the disbelievers of Quraysh and reminds them of the
punishment and painful torment that He sent in this life on their likes, who
disbelieved before them. For instance, Allah the Exalted punished the people of
Nuh by drowning them in the encompassing flood that touched all the people of
earth. There is also the end that struck the people of
Ar-Rass, and we mentioned their story before
in Surah Al-Furqan,
the people of Sadum (Sodom) and the
surrounding areas, to whom Lut was sent.
Allah the Exalted shook the earth beneath them and turned their area into a
reeking lake, as stinking as the disbelief, tyranny and defiance of the Truth
that they had,
they are the nation of Shu`ayb, peace be upon
... وَقَوْمُ تُبَّعٍ ...
and the people ofTubba`,
King of Yemen; we explained his story in the Tafsir of Surah
Ad-Dukhan, and therefore, we do not need to repeat it here. All
praise is due to Allah.
... كُلٌّ كَذَّبَ الرُّسُلَ ...
Everyone of them denied (their) Messengers,
means, all of these nations and their generations belied their respective
Messenger, and whoever denies even one Messenger, is as if he has denied all
Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,
كَذَّبَتْ قَوْمُ نُوحٍ الْمُرْسَلِينَ
The people of Nuh denied
the Messengers. (26:105)
even though only one Messenger was sent to them, and indeed, if all the
Messengers were sent to them, they would have disbelieved in them as well.
... فَحَقَّ وَعِيدِ ﴿١٤﴾
so My threat took effect.
meaning, the promise of torment and punishment that Allah delivered to them on
account of their denial took effect. Therefore, all those who fear suffering the
same end should be warned, especially since the latter have denied their
Messenger, just as the former denied their Messenger.
Repeating the Creation is Easier than originating It
And indeed We have created
man, and We know what his self whispers to him.
Allah the Exalted affirms His absolute dominance over mankind, being their
Creator and the Knower of everything about them. Allah the Exalted has complete
knowledge of all thoughts that cross the mind of man, be they good or evil.
means, His angels are nearer to man than his jugular vein.
Those who explained `We' in the Ayah to mean `Our knowledge,' have done so to
avoid falling into the idea of incarnation or indwelling; but these two creeds
are false according to the consensus of Muslims. Allah is praised and glorified,
He is far hallowed beyond what they ascribe to Him. The words of this Ayah do
not need this explanation (that `We' refers to `Allah's knowledge'), for Allah
did not say, `and I am closer to him than his jugular vein.' Rather, He said,
وَنَحْنُ أَقْرَبُ إِلَيْهِ مِنْ حَبْلِ الْوَرِيدِ
(And We are nearer to him than his jugular vein). just as He said in the case
of dying persons, وَنَحْنُ أَقْرَبُ إِلَيْهِ مِنكُمْ وَلَكِن لَّا تُبْصِرُونَ(But We are nearer to him
than you, but you see not). (56:85), in reference to His angels (who take the
Allah the Exalted the Blessed said, إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا الذِّكْرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَحَـفِظُون
Verily, We, it is We Who have sent down the Dhikr
and surely, We will guard it. (15:9) Therefore, the angels brought down the
revelation, the Qur'an, by the leave of Allah, the Exalted, the Most Honored.
Thus, the angels are closer to man than his own jugular vein, by the power and
leave of Allah. Consequently, the angel touches mankind, just as the devil
touches them, for the devil is as close to them as the blood that runs in their
veins; just as Allah's Prophet, who is truthful and was told the truth, told us.
Verily, a man might utter a word that pleases Allah the Exalted,
unaware of how highly it will be regarded, and on its account Allah the Exalted
and Most Honored decrees His pleasure of him until the Day he meets Him.
A man might indeed utter a word that angers Allah the Exalted,
unaware of how dreadful it will be and on its account Allah the Exalted decrees
for him His anger until the Day he meets Him.''
Alqamah used to say,
"How many words did I not utter because of the Hadith that Bilal bin Al-Harith
At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah collected this Hadith.
At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih.''
There is a Hadith similar to this in the Sahih.
Mankind of the Stupor of Death, the Blast of the Trumpet and the Day of
The parable of whoever tries to avoid death is that of a fox that
had a debt to pay to the earth. The fox went away and when he became tired and
the time to sleep overtook him, he entered his den. The earth said to him, `O
fox! Pay my debt!'
The fox went out howling and continued until his neck was cutoff,
(i.e.,) he died.
This parable indicates that just as the fox had no way of escaping or avoiding
the earth, likewise, man has no way of avoiding death.
And every person will come
forth along with a
meaning, an angel to drive him to the gathering place and an angel to bear
witness against him with regards to his deeds.
This is the apparent meaning of this honorable Ayah and it is the meaning that
Ibn Jarir preferred.
It was narrated from Yahya bin Rafi`, the freed servant of Thaqif, that he heard
Uthman bin Affan, may Allah be pleased with him, giving a speech in which he
recited this Ayah, وَجَاءتْ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ مَّعَهَا سَائِقٌ وَشَهِيدٌ
(And every person will come forth along with a Sa'iq
and a Shahid),
and then said,
"A Sa'iq to drive every person to Allah the
Exalted, and a Shahid to witness against him
what he has done.''
Indeed you were heedless of
this. Now We have removed from you, your covering, and sharp is your sight this
is directed at humanity.
Allah said, لَقَدْ كُنتَ فِي غَفْلَةٍ مِّنْ هَذَا
(Indeed you were heedless of this), i.e. of this Day,
فَكَشَفْنَا عَنكَ غِطَاءكَ فَبَصَرُكَ الْيَوْمَ حَدِيدٌ
(Now We have removed from you, your covering, and sharp is your sight this
Day!) `your sight is now clear and strong.'
Everyone, including the disbelievers, will have clear sight on the Day of
Resurrection. However, having sight will not be helpful to the disbelievers on
that Day, for Allah the Exalted said,
أَسْمِعْ بِهِمْ وَأَبْصِرْ يَوْمَ يَأْتُونَنَا
How clearly will they
(disbelievers) see and hear, the Day when they will appear before Us! (19:38),
Allah the Exalted states that the scribe angel, who is entrusted with recording
the deeds of mankind, will testify against him or her about the deeds he or she
did on the Day of Resurrection. He will say,
Both of you throw into Hell
every stubborn disbeliever.
It appears that Allah will say these words to the
Sa'iq and Shahid angels; the
Sa'iq drove him to the grounds where
Reckoning is held and the Shahid testified.
Allah the Exalted will order them to throw him in the fire of
Jahannam, and worse it is as a destination,
أَلْقِيَا فِي جَهَنَّمَ
كُلَّ كَفَّارٍ عَنِيدٍ
Both of you throw into Hell
every stubborn disbeliever.
meaning, whose disbelief and denial of truth was horrendous, who used to
stubbornly reject the truth, knowingly contradicting it with falsehood,
refers to the devil who is entrusted to every man, according to Abdullah bin
Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah and several others. He will say,
.... رَبَّنَا مَا أَطْغَيْتُهُ ...
Our Lord! I did not push him to transgression,
meaning, the devil will say this about the human who came on the Day of
Resurrection as a disbeliever. The devil will disown him, saying,
رَبَّنَا مَا أَطْغَيْتُهُ
(Our Lord! I did not push him to transgression) meaning, "I did not lead him
... وَلَكِن كَانَ فِي ضَلَالٍ
but he was himself in error far astray.
meaning, he himself was misguided, accepting falsehood and stubborn to the
Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said in another Ayah,
And Shaytan will say
when the matter has been decided:
"Verily, Allah promised you a promise of truth. And I too promised you, but I
betrayed you. I had no authority over you except that I called you, and you
responded to me. So blame me not, but blame yourselves. I cannot help you, nor
can you help me. I deny your former act in associating me as a partner with
Allah. Verily, there is a painful torment for the wrongdoers.'' (14:22)
(Allah) will say: "Dispute
not in front of Me, I had already in advance sent you the threat.''
The Lord, the Exalted and Most Honored will say this to the man and his devil
companion, who will be disputing before Him.
The man will say, "O, Lord! This devil has misguided me away from the
Remembrance after it came to me,'' while the devil will declare,
رَبَّنَا مَا أَطْغَيْتُهُ وَلَكِن كَانَ فِي ضَلَالٍ بَعِيدٍ
(Our Lord! I did not push him to transgression, but he was himself in error far
astray). from the path of truth.
The Lord, the Exalted and Most Honored will say to them,
لَا تَخْتَصِمُوا لَدَيَّ
(Dispute not in front of Me), or `before Me,'
وَقَدْ قَدَّمْتُ إِلَيْكُم بِالْوَعِيدِ
(I had already in advance sent you the threat).
`I have given you sufficient proof by the words of the Messengers, and I have
sent down the Divine Books; the evidences, signs and proofs have thus been
established against you,'
The Fire said, "I have been favored with the arrogant people and
Paradise said, "What is wrong with me that only the poor and
humble people enter me?''
Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said to Paradise,
"You are My mercy, with which I grant mercy to those whom I will
among My servants.''
He said to Hell,
"You are My punishment which I inflict upon whom I wish from My
servants, and I shall fill both of you.''
As for Hellfire, it will not have its fill until Allah puts His Foot over it and
she will say, "Enough! Enough!'' She will become full and its sides will come
close to each other. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored shall not be unjust to
any one of His creatures.
As for Paradise, Allah the Exalted and Most Honored will create another creation
to fill it.
And indeed We created the
heavens and the earth and all that between them in six Days and nothing of
fatigue touched Us.
is emphasis on the Resurrection because He Who is able to create the heavens and
earth without fatigue, then surely He is able to resurrect the dead.
"The Jews, may Allah's curses descend on them, said that Allah created the
heavens and earth in six days and then rested on the seventh day, which was the
Sabbath. This is why they call it a holiday. Allah the Exalted then sent down
denial of their statement and false opinion.''
Allah said, وَمَا مَسَّنَا مِن لُّغُوبٍ
(and nothing of fatigue touched Us). indicating that no sleep, exhaustion or
weariness affects Him. Allah the Exalted the Blessed said in other Ayat,
Certainly you will be brought before your Lord and will see Him
as you see this moon, and you will have no trouble in seeing Him. So, if you can
avoid missing the prayer before the sunrise and the prayer before sunset, you
must do so.
He then recited Allah's statement,
وَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ قَبْلَ طُلُوعِ الشَّمْسِ وَقَبْلَ الْغُرُوبِ
(and glorify the praises of your Lord, before the rising of the sun and before
The Two Sahihs and the rest of the Group collected this Hadith through the chain
Verily, it is We Who give
life and cause death; and to Us is the final return.
Allah is He Who starts creation and then brings it back to life, and the latter
is easier for Him; to Him is the final return of all creations. At this time, He
will recompense each according to his or her deeds, good for good and evil for
On the Day when the earth
shall be cleft, from off them (they will come out) hastening forth.
Allah the Exalted and Most Honored will send down rain from the sky. From that
rain the bodies of the creations will grow while they are in their graves, just
as the seed grows in soil in the aftermath of rain. When the bodies grow to
their full strength, Allah the Exalted will command angel Israfil and he will
blow in the Trumpet (for a second time). The souls will be enclosed in a hole in
the Trumpet. When Israfil blows in the Trumpet, the souls will depart from it
and will fly between the heavens and earth. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored,
"By My grace and power, each soul shall return to the body that it used to
and indeed, every soul will return to its body. The soul will enter its body
just as poison enters the body, then the earth will be uncovered from above
them, and they will all stand and head towards the Reckoning place hastening to
obey the command of Allah the Exalted and Most Honored,
Indeed, We know that
your breast is straitened at what they say. So glorify the praises of your Lord
and be of those who prostrate themselves (to Him). And worship your Lord until
there comes unto you the certainty (i.e., death). (15:97)
... وَمَا أَنتَ عَلَيْهِم بِجَبَّارٍ ...
And you are not the one to
says, `it is not you who forces them to accept the guidance; this is not a part
of your mission.'
Verily, you guide not
whom you like, but Allah guides whom He wills. (28:56)
Allah's statement here, وَمَا أَنتَ عَلَيْهِم بِجَبَّارٍ فَذَكِّرْ بِالْقُرْآنِ مَن
(And you are not the one to force them. But warn by the Qur'an; him who fears My
threat). Qatadah used to invoke Allah by saying,
"O Allah! Make us among those who fear Your threat and hope for Your promise, O
Barr (Subtle, Kind, Courteous, and Generous),
O Rahim (the Most Merciful.''
This is the end of the Tafsir of Surah Qaf.
All praise is due to Allah, He is for us, the most excellent Trustee.