(Indeed Allah has heard
the statement of her that disputes with you concerning her husband ....)
till the end of this Ayah."
Al-Bukhari collected this Hadith without a
chain of narration in the Book of Tawhid in his Sahih.
Majah, Ibn Abi Hatim and Ibn Jarir also collected this Hadith.
narration that Ibn Abi Hatim collected, A'ishah said,
"Blessed is He,
Whose hearing has encompassed all things. I heard what Khawlah bint
Tha`labah said while some of it I could not hear. She was complaining to
Allah's Messenger about her husband. She said,
`O Allah's Messenger! He
spent my wealth, exhausted my youth and my womb bore abundantly for him.
When I became old, unable to bear children, he pronounced the
O Allah! I complain to you.'
Soon after, Jibril brought down this
Ayah, قَدْ سَمِعَ اللَّهُ قَوْلَ
الَّتِي تُجَادِلُكَ فِي زَوْجِهَا (Indeed Allah has heard
the statement of her that disputes with you concerning her husband),''
Imam Ahmad recorded that
Khuwaylah bint Tha`labah said,
"By Allah! Allah sent down the beginning of
Surah Al-Mujadilah in connection with me and `Aws bin As-Samit.
He was my
husband and had grown old and difficult. One day, he came to me and I
argued with him about something and he said, out of anger,
`You are like
my mother's back to me.'
He went out and sat with some of his people. Then
he came back and wanted to have sexual intercourse with me. I said,
by the One in Whose Hand is the soul of Khuwaylah! You will not have your
way with me after you said what you said, until Allah and His Messenger
issue judgement about our case.'
He wanted to have his way regardless of
my choice and I pushed him away from me; he was an old man. I next went
to one of my neighbors and borrowed a garment from her and went to the
Messenger of Allah. I told him what happened and kept complaining to him
of the ill treatment I received from `Aws. He said,
O Khuwaylah! Allah has
revealed something about you and your spouse. He recited to me,
سَمِعَ اللَّهُ قَوْلَ الَّتِي تُجَادِلُكَ فِي زَوْجِهَا وَتَشْتَكِي إِلَى
يَسْمَعُ تَحَاوُرَكُمَا إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ بَصِيرٌ (Indeed Allah has heard
the statement of her that disputes with you concerning her husband, and
complains to Allah. And Allah hears the argument between you both. Verily,
Allah is All-Hearer, All-Seer), until,
وَلِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ (And for disbelievers,
there is a painful torment). He then said to me,
Command him to free a
I said, `O Allah's
Messenger! He does not have any to free.'
Let him fast for two
I said, `By Allah! He is
an old man and cannot fast.'
You have done a
righteously good thing. So go and give away the dates on his behalf and
take care of your cousin.
I did that.'''
Abu Dawud also collected this
Hadith in the Book of Divorce in his Sunan, according to which her name is Khawlah bint Tha`labah. She is also known as Khawlah bint Malik bin
Tha`labah, and Khuwaylah. All these are close to each other, and Allah
knows best. This is what is correct about the reason behind revealing this
Those among you who make
their wives unlawful to them by Zihar.
Zihar, which is derived
from Az-Zahr, meaning, the back. During the time of
Jahiliyyah, when one
wanted to declare Zihar towards his wife, he would say, "To me, you are
like the back of my mother.''
That was one way they issued divorce during
that time. Allah allowed this Ummah to pay expiation for this statement
and did not render it as a divorce, contrary to the case during the time
And he who finds not must
fast two successive months before they both touch each other. And he who
is unable to do so, should feed sixty of the poor.
is explained by the
Hadiths that prescribe these punishments in this order, just as in the
Hadith collected in the Two Sahihs about the man who had sexual
intercourse with his wife during the day, in Ramadan.
... ذَلِكَ لِتُؤْمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ
That is in order that you
may have perfect faith in Allah and His Messenger.
meaning, `We legislated
this punishment so that you acquire this trait,'
حُدُودُ اللَّهِ ...
These are the limits set
meaning, the things that
He has forbidden, so do not transgress them,
... وَلِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ﴿٤﴾
And for disbelievers,
there is a painful torment.
meaning, those who do not
believe and do not abide by the rulings of Islamic legislation should
never think they will be saved from the torment. Rather theirs will be a
painful torment in this life and the Hereafter.
but He is their fourth
--- nor of five but He is their sixth --- nor of less than that or more
but He is with them wheresoever they may be.
meaning, He is watching
them, perfectly hearing their speech, whether uttered in public or secret.
His angels record all that they say, even though He has better knowledge
of it and hears them perfectly, as Allah said;
Or do they think that We
hear not their secrets and their private Najwa
And Our messengers are by them to record. (43:80)
For this reason, several
mentioned that there is a consensus among the scholars that this "with''
refers to Allah's knowledge. There is no doubt that this meaning is true,
especially if we add to it the certainty that His hearing encompasses all
things, as well as His sight. He, the Exalted and Most Honored, is never
lacking in knowing all their affairs,
Have you not seen those
who were forbidden to hold secret counsels, and afterwards returned to
that which they had been forbidden,
He said, "The Jews.''
said by Muqatil bin Hayyan, who added,
"The Prophet had a peace treaty
with the Jews. When one of the Prophet's Companions would pass by a
gathering of Jews, they would speak among themselves in secret, prompting
the believer to think that they were plotting to kill or harm him. When
the believer saw this, he feared for his safety and changed the route he
was taking. The Prophet advised them to abandon their evil secret talks,
but they did not listen and kept on holding the Najwa. Allah the Exalted
sent down this Ayah in their case,
and say within themselves: "Why should Allah punish us not for what we say''
means, the Jews say these
words, changing the meaning of the Islamic greeting, into an abusive
statement, and then say, `Had he been a Prophet, Allah would have punished
us for what we said. Allah knows what we conceal. Therefore, if Muhammad
were a Prophet, Allah would have sent His punishment on us sooner, in this
Allah the Exalted
Hell will be sufficient
should be sufficient for them in the Hereafter,
... يَصْلَوْنَهَا فَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ﴿٨﴾
they will enter therein.
And worst indeed is that destination!
Imam Ahmad recorded that Abdullah
bin `Amr said,
the Jews used to say, "Sam `Alayka,'' to Allah's
Messenger. They would say then within themselves, "Why does Allah not
punish us for what we say'' This Ayah was later revealed,
And when they come to
you, they greet you with a greeting wherewith Allah greets you not, and
say within themselves: "Why should Allah punish us not for what we say''
Hell will be sufficient for them; they will enter therein. And worst
indeed is that destination!
Its chain of narration is
Hasan, but they (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) did not collect it.
Manners of the Najwa,
Allah the Exalted teaches
His believing servants to avoid the ways of the disbelievers and
An-Najwa are only from
the Shaytan, in order that he may cause grief to the believers. But he
cannot harm them in the least, except as Allah permits. And in Allah let
the believers put their trust.
Allah states that secret talks, where the
believers feel anxious, are
مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ لِيَحْزُنَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا
(only from Shaytan, in order that he may cause grief to the believers).
meaning, that those who
hold such counsels do so because of the lures of the devil, لِيَحْزُنَ
الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا (in order that he may
cause grief to the believers).
The devil seeks to bother the believers,
even though his plots will not harm the believers, except if Allah wills
Those who are the subject of evil
Najwa, should seek refuge in Allah
and put his trust in Him, for none of it will harm them, Allah willing.
The Sunnah also forbids the
Najwa so that no Muslim is bothered by
Imam Ahmad recorded that
Abdullah bin Mas`ud said that the Messenger of Allah said,
He who relieves a
difficulty for a person living in straitened circumstances, then Allah
will relieve the difficulties of this life and the Hereafter for him.
Surely, Allah helps the servant as long as the servant helps his brother.
There are many similar
This is why Allah the
اللَّهُ لَكُمْ (make room. Allah
will give you room).
"This Ayah was revealed
about gatherings in places where Allah is being remembered. When someone
would come to join in assemblies with the Messenger, they would hesitate
to offer them space so that they would not loose their places. Allah the
Exalted commanded them to spread out and make room for each other.''
Imam Ahmad and Imam
Ash-Shafi`i recorded that Abdullah bin Umar said that the Messenger of
Allah will exalt in
degrees those of you who believe, and those who have been granted
knowledge. And Allah is Well-Acquainted with what you do.
means, do not think that
if one of you makes room for his brother, or rises up when he is commanded
to do so, that this will diminish his right or honor. Rather, this will
increase his virtue and status with Allah, and Allah the Exalted will
never make his good deed be lost. To the contrary, He will reward him for
it in this life and the Hereafter. Surely, he who humbles himself by and
before the command of his Lord, then Allah will elevate his status and
make him known by his good behavior. the statement of Allah the Exalted,
When you (want to)
consult the Messenger in private, spend something in charity before your
Allah commanded His
believing servants, when any of them wanted to speak with Allah's
Messenger in secret, to give away charity beforehand so that his charity
cleanses and purifies him and makes him worthy of having a private counsel
with the Prophet. This is why Allah the Exalted said,
خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ وَأَطْهَرُ...
That will be better and
purer for you.
then He said,
لَّمْ تَجِدُوا ...
But if you find not.
meaning, if he is unable
to do so due to poverty,
... فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ﴿١٢﴾
then verily, Allah is
Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
He only commanded those
who are financially able to give this type of charity.
If then you do it not,
and Allah has forgiven you, then perform Salah and give
Zakah and obey
Allah and His Messenger. And Allah is All-Aware of what you do.
Therefore, Allah abrogated the obligation of giving this charity.
said that none has implemented this command before except its abrogation, Ali bin Abi Talib.
Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn Abbas:
تُقَدِّمُوا بَيْنَ يَدَيْ نَجْوَاكُمْ صَدَقَاتٍ
(spend something in
charity before your private consultation).
"The Muslims kept asking
Allah's Messenger questions until it became difficult on him. Allah wanted
to lighten the burden from His Prophet, upon him be peace. So when He
said this, many Muslims were afraid to pay this charity and stopped
asking. Afterwards, Allah sent down this Ayah,
Are you afraid of
spending in charity before your private consultation....''
Sa`id bin Abi
`Arubah reported from Qatadah and Muqatil bin Hayyan,
"People kept questioning
Allah's Messenger until they made things difficult for him. Allah provided
a way to stop their behavior by this Ayah. One of them would need to speak
to Allah's Prophet about a real matter, but could not do so until he gave
in charity. This became hard on people and Allah sent down relief from
this requirement afterwards,
... فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
But if you find not,
then verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful).''
Allah chastises the
hypocrites for secretly aiding and supporting the disbelievers even
though, in reality, they were neither with the disbelievers nor with the
Muslims. Allah the Exalted said in another Ayah,
meaning, the hypocrites lie when they vow, knowing that
they are lying, which is called the vow of Al-Ghamus.
We seek refuge with Allah from their ways.
When the hypocrites met
the believers they said that they believed and when they went to the
Messenger, they swore to him by Allah that they were believers. They knew
that they were lying in their vow, and they knew that they did not declare
their true creed. This is why Allah witnessed here that they lie in their
vows and know that they are lying, even though their statement (about the
Prophet being Allah's Prophet) is true in essence.
They have made their
oaths a screen. Thus they hinder (others) from the path of Allah,
meaning, the hypocrites
pretended to be believers and concealed disbelief under the shield of
their false oaths. Many were unaware of their true stance and were thus
deceived by their oaths. Because of this, some people were hindered from
the Path of Allah
... فَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ مُّهِينٌ﴿١٦﴾
so they shall have a
meaning, as recompense
for belittling the significance of swearing by the Mighty Name of Allah,
while lying and concealing betrayal.
then they will swear to
Him as they swear to you. And they think that they have something.
meaning, they will swear
to Allah the Exalted and Most Honored that they were following the
guidance and the correct path, just as they used to swear to the believers
in this worldly life. Verily, those who live following on a certain path
will most likely die while on it. Thus, they will be resurrected upon
their path. The hypocrites will think that their vows will help them with
Allah, just as they helped with the people, who were obliged to treat them
as they pretended to be, Muslim. This is why Allah said,
وَيَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُمْ عَلَى شَيْءٍ (And they think that they have something), meaning, on account of swearing
to their Lord (that they used to be believers).
Those who oppose Allah and His Messenger, they will be
among those most humiliated.
Allah and His Messenger
shall prevail. Allah the Exalted asserts that the rebellious and stubborn
disbelievers who defy Him and His Messenger, those who do not embrace the
religion and stay away from Truth, are in one area, while the guidance is
in another area,
... أُوْلَئِكَ فِي الأَذَلِّين
They will be among those
they are among the
miserable, the cast out, banished from goodness; they are the humiliated
ones in this life and the Hereafter.
Allah has decreed:
"Verily, I and My Messengers shall be the victorious.''
meaning, He has decreed,
written in the First Book, and decided in the decree that He has willed --
which can never be resisted, changed or prevented -- that final victory is
for Him, His Book, His Messengers and the faithful believers, in this life
and the Hereafter:
Surely, the (good) end is
for those who have Taqwa. (11:49)
Verily, We will indeed
make victorious Our Messengers and those who believe in the life of this
world and on the Day when the witnesses will stand forth, the Day when
their excuses will be of no profit to the wrongdoers. Theirs will be the
curse, and theirs will be the evil abode. (40:51-52)
Allah has decreed:
"Verily, I and My Messengers shall be the victorious.'' Verily, Allah is
meaning, the Almighty,
All-Powerful has decreed that He shall prevail over His enemies. Indeed,
this is the final judgement and a matter ordained; the final triumph and
victory are for the believers in this life and the Hereafter.
You will not find any
people who believe in Allah and the Last Day, making friendship with those
who oppose Allah and His Messenger, even though they were their fathers or
their sons or their brothers or their kindred.
Meaning, do not befriend
the deniers, even if they are among the closest relatives.
Let not the believers
take the disbelievers as friends instead of the believers, and whoever
does that will never be helped by Allah in any way, except if you indeed
fear a danger from them. And Allah warns you against Himself. (3:28),
Say: If your fathers,
your sons, your brothers, your wives, your kindred, the wealth that you
have gained, the commerce in which you fear a decline, and the dwellings
in which you delight are dearer to you than Allah and His Messenger, and
striving hard and fighting in His cause, then wait until Allah brings
about His decision (torment).
And Allah guides not the
people who are the rebellious. (9:24)
Sa`id bin `Abdul-`Aziz and others said that this Ayah,
You will not find any
people who believe in Allah and the Last Day...
was revealed in the case
of Abu Ubaydah Amir bin Abdullah bin Al-Jarrah when he killed his
disbelieving father, during the battle of Badr. This is why when Umar bin
Al-Khattab placed the matter of Khilafah in the consultation of six men
after him, he said; "If Abu Ubaydah were alive, I would have appointed
him the Khalifah.''
It was also said that the
وَلَوْ كَانُوا آبَاءهُمْ (even though they were
their fathers), was revealed in the case of Abu Ubaydah, when he killed
his father during the battle of Badr,
while the Ayah,
أَوْ أَبْنَاءهُمْ (or their sons) was
revealed in the case of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq when he intended to kill his
(disbelieving) son, Abdur-Rahman, (during Badr),
while the Ayah,
أَوْ إِخْوَانَهُمْ (or their brothers) was
revealed about the case of Mus`ab bin `Umayr, who killed his brother, Ubayd
bin Umayr, during Badr,
and that the Ayah,
عَشِيرَتَهُمْ (or their kindred) was
revealed about the case of Umar, who killed one of his relatives during
Badr, and also that this Ayah was revealed in the case of Hamzah, Ali and Ubaydah bin Al-Harith.
They killed their close relatives Utbah, Shaybah
and Al-Walid bin Utbah that day.
Allah knows best.
A similar matter is
when Allah's Messenger consulted with his Companions about what should be
done with the captives of Badr.
Abu Bakr As-Siddiq thought that they
should accept ransom for them so the Muslims could use the money to
strengthen themselves. He mentioned the fact that the captured were the
cousins and the kindred, and that they might embrace Islam later on, by
"But I have a different opinion, O Allah's
Messenger! Let me kill so-and-so, my relative, and let Ali kill Aqil
(Ali's brother), and so-and-so kill so-and-so. Let us make it known to
Allah that we have no mercy in our hearts for the idolators.''
For such He has written
faith in their hearts, and strengthened them with
Ruh from Himself.
means, those who have the quality of not befriending those who oppose
Allah and His Messenger, even if they are their fathers or brothers, are
those whom Allah has decreed faith, meaning, happiness, in their hearts
and made faith dear to their hearts and happiness reside therein.
said that the Ayah,كَتَبَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمُ الْإِيمَانَ (He has written faith in
their hearts), means,
"He has placed faith in
Ibn Abbas said that,
وَأَيَّدَهُم بِرُوحٍ مِّنْهُ (and strengthened them
with Ruh from Himself), means,
And He will admit them to
Gardens under which rivers flow, to dwell therein. Allah is well pleased
with them, and they are well pleased with Him.
was explained several
اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ وَرَضُوا عَنْهُ
Allah is well pleased
with them, and they are well pleased with Him.
contains a beautiful
secret. When the believers became enraged against their relatives and
kindred in Allah's cause, He compensated them by being pleased with them
and making them pleased with Him from what He has granted them of eternal
delight, ultimate victory and encompassing favor.
They are the party of
Allah. Verily, the party of Allah will be the successful.
indicates that they are
the party of Allah, meaning, His servants who are worthy of earning His
Allah's statement, أَلَا
إِنَّ حِزْبَ اللَّهِ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ (Verily, the party of
Allah will be the successful), asserts their success, happiness and
triumph in this life and the Hereafter, in contrast to those, who are the
party of the devil, أَلَا
إِنَّ حِزْبَ الشَّيْطَانِ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ (Verily, the party of
Shaytan will be the losers!)
This is the end of the Tafsir of
All praise and thanks are due to Allah.