And say to those who were
given the Scripture and those who are illiterates: "Do you submit
yourselves If they do, they are rightly guided; but if they turn away,
your duty is only to convey the message; and Allah is All-Seer of (His)
Mentioning the unlettered
ones in specific here does not mean that Muhammad was only sent to them,
because the blessing to the Arabs is greater than that of other nations.
In another Ayah, Allah
لَذِكْرٌ لَّكَ وَلِقَوْمِكَ
And verily, this is
indeed a Reminder for you and your people. (43:44)
Surely, the Qur'an is
also a reminder for those other than Arabs to take heed.
But those of the groups
that reject it, the Fire will be their promised meeting place. (11:17)
There are other Ayat that indicate that his Message is universal. He, may
Allah's peace and blessings be upon him, was sent to all people, mankind
and the Jinns alike. We mentioned this meaning before in Surah
producing various Ayat and Hadiths. All praise and thanks are to due to
This Ayah testifies that Allah has indeed accepted the invocation
of His friend Ibrahim when he supplicated Allah to send a Messenger to the
people of Makkah from among them their own. One who will recite to them
Allah's statements, purify them and teach them the Book and the
So, Allah -- all praise and thanks be to Him -- sent him when the
Messengers ceased and the way was obscure. Indeed it was a time when it
was most needed. Especially since Allah hated the people of the earth,
Arabs and non-Arabs alike, except for a few of the People of the
Scripture, who kept to the true faith Allah the Exalted sent to `Isa bin
Maryam, peace be upon him. This is why Allah said,
He it is Who sent among
the unlettered ones a Messenger from among themselves, reciting to them
His Ayat, purifying them, and teaching them the Book and the
verily, they had been before in manifest error.
In ancient times, the
Arabs used to adhere by the religion of Ibrahim, peace be upon him. They
later changed, corrupted and contradicted it, choosing polytheism instead
of Tawhid and doubts instead of certainty. They invented a religion that
Allah did not legislate, just as the People of the Scriptures did when
they changed and corrupted their Divine Books. Allah sent Muhammad, with a
great divine legislation, perfect religion that is suitable for all humans
In it, there is guidance
and explanations of all that they need in this life and the Hereafter. It
draws them closer to Paradise and Allah's pleasure and takes them away
from the Fire and earning Allah's anger.
In it, there is the final
judgement for all types of doubts and suspicion for all major and minor
matters of the religion.
In Muhammad, Allah
gathered all the good qualities of the Prophets before him, and gave him
what He has never given the earlier and later generations of mankind.
May Allah's peace and
blessings be on Muhammad until the Day of Judgement.
Muhammad is the Messenger to Arabs and Non-Arabs alike
And others among them
who have not yet joined them. And He is the Almighty, the All-Wise.
Abu Abdullah Al-Bukhari, may Allah have mercy upon him, recorded that Abu
"We were sitting with the Prophet, when
was revealed to him; وَآخَرِينَ
مِنْهُمْ لَمَّا يَلْحَقُوا بِهِمْ (And others among them
who have not yet joined them). They said, `Who are they, O Allah's
The Prophet did not reply until they repeated the question
At that time, Salman Al-Farisi was with us. So Allah's Messenger
placed his hand on Salman, saying,
If faith were on
Ath-Thurayya (Pleiades), even then some men or a man from these people
would attain it.''
Muslim, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa`i, Ibn Abi Hatim and Ibn
Jarir collected this Hadith.
This Hadith indicates that
Surah Al-Jumu`ah was revealed in Al-Madinah and that the Messenger's
Message is universal.
The Prophet explained
مِنْهُمْ (And others among them)
by mentioning Persia. This is why the Prophet sent messages to the kings
of Persia and Rome, among other kings, calling them to Allah the Exalted
and to follow what he was sent with.
This is why Mujahid and
several others said that Allah's statement,وَآخَرِينَ
مِنْهُمْ لَمَّا يَلْحَقُوا بِهِمْ (And others among
them who have not yet joined them), refers to all non-Arabs who believe in
the truth of the Prophet.
الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ(And He is the
Almighty, the All-Wise), asserts that He is Almighty and All-Wise in His
legislation and the destiny He appoints.
The likeness of those who were entrusted
with the Tawrah, but did not carry it,
is as the likeness of a donkey which carries huge burdens of books.
Allah the Exalted
admonishes the Jews who were entrusted with the Tawrah and were ordered to
abide by it.
However, they did not abide by it, and this is why Allah
resembled them to the donkey that carries volumes of books. Surely, when
the donkey carries books, it will not understand what these books contain
because it is only carrying these books using its strength.
This is the
example of those who were entrusted with the Tawrah; they read its letter
but did not understand its meanings nor abided by them. Rather, they even
corrupted and changed the Tawrah.
Therefore, they are worse than the donkey, because the donkey cannot
understand. They, on the other hand, could have understood using their
minds, but their minds were of no benefit.
This is why Allah the
Exalted said in another Ayah,
"O you Jews! If you
pretend that you are friends of Allah, to the exclusion of other people,
then long for death if you are truthful.''
meaning, `if you claim
that you are on the correct guidance and that Muhammad and his Companions
are being led astray, then invoke Allah to bring death to the misguided
group among the two, if you are truthful in your claim.'
"If the home of the
Hereafter with Allah is indeed for you specially and not for others, of
mankind, then long for death if you are truthful.''
But they will never long
for it because of what their hands have sent forth before them. And Allah
is Aware of the wrongdoers.
And verily, you will find
them the greediest of mankind for life and (even greedier) than those who
ascribe partners to Allah. One of them wishes that he could be given a
life of a thousand years. But the grant of such life will not save him
even a little from punishment. And Allah is Seer of what they do.
We explained these
meanings there, stating that the challenge was for the Jews to invoke
Allah to destroy the misguided group, either they or their enemies.
We also mentioned a
similar challenge against the Christians in Surah
Then whoever disputes
with you concerning him (`Isa)
after (all this) knowledge that has come to you, say: "Come, let us call
our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves
-- then we pray and invoke the curse of Allah upon those who lie.'' (3:61)
Al-Jumu`ah (Friday), and the Orders and Etiquette
Friday is called
because it is derived from Al-Jam`, literally, gathering. The people of
Islam gather weekly, on every Friday in the major places of worship.
was during Friday when Allah finished the creation, the sixth day, during
which Allah created the heavens and earth. During Friday, Allah created
Adam, and he was placed in Paradise, and ironically, it was a Friday when
he was taken out of Paradise. It will be on a Friday when the Last Hour
There is an hour during Friday, wherein no faithful servant
asks Allah for something good, but Allah will give him what he asked for.
All of this is based upon Hadiths in the authentic collections.
ancient language Friday was called, `Arubah. It is a fact that previous
nations were informed about Friday, but they were led astray from it. The
Jews chose Saturday for their holy day, but Adam was not created on
Saturday. The Christians chose Sunday, which is the day the creation was
initiated. Allah chose Friday for this Ummah, because it is the day the
creation was finished.
Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded that Abu Hurayrah
said that the Messenger of Allah said,
We are the last (to come)
but the first on the Day of Resurrection, though the former nations were
given the Scriptures before us. And this was their day (Friday) the
celebration of which was made compulsory for them, but they differed about
it. So, Allah gave us guidance to it, and all other people are coming
after us: the Jews tomorrow and the Christians the day after tomorrow.''
Allah diverted those who
were before us from Friday. For the Jews there was Saturday, and for the
Christians there was Sunday. Allah then brought us and guided us to
Friday. He made them; Friday, Saturday and Sunday, and it is in this order
they will come after us on the Day of Resurrection. We are the last of
among the people of this world and the first among the created to be
judged on the Day of Resurrection.
Necessity of the
Remembrance of Allah on Friday, by attending the Khutbah and the Prayer
Allah commanded the
believers to gather to worship Him on Friday,
Don't do that. When you
come for prayer, there should be tranquility upon you. Pray what remains
of the prayer and complete what you have missed.''
The Two Sahihs collected
"By Allah! Hastening to
the prayer is not accomplished by the feet. Indeed they were prohibited
from coming to prayer without tranquility and dignity. Rather it is about
the hearts, the intention, and the submission.''
فَاسْعَوْا إِلَى ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ
(then hasten to the
remembrance of Allah),
"means that you have to hasten to the prayer with
your heart and actions, and walk to it.''
It is recommended for those
coming to the Friday prayer to perform Ghusl (taking bath) before they
come. It is collected in the Two Sahihs that Abdullah bin Umar said that
Allah's Messenger said,
أَحَدُكُمُ الْجُمُعَةَ فَلْيَغْتَسِلْ
When one of you comes to
the Friday prayer, then let him perform bath.
The Two Sahihs recorded
that Abu Sa`id said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(well) on the day of Jumu`ah, leaves early, walking not riding, and sits
close to the Imam and listens without talking, will earn the reward of
fasting and performing standing (in prayer) for an entire year for every
step he takes.
This Hadith has various chains of narration, the compilers
of the Four Sunan collected it, and At-Tirmidhi graded it Hasan.
The Two Sahihs also
recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,
on Friday and applies perfume, if he has any, wears his best clothes, then
goes to the Masjid and performs voluntary prayer,
if he wishes, does not
bother anyone, listens when the Imam appears until he starts the prayer.
Then all of this will be an expiation for whatever occurs between that
Friday and the next Friday.
Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah recorded in their Sunans that Abdullah bin Salam said that he heard the Messenger of Allah
say, while on the Minbar:
When the call is
proclaimed for the Salah on Friday,
referring to the
Adhan which was
called, during the time of the Prophet, when he came out of his house and
sat on the Minbar. The
Adhan would be called before the Prophet near the
door of the Masjid.
As for the earlier
Adhan that the Leader of the faithful, Uthman bin Affan added, it was done because the Muslims
increased in number during his time.
Al-Bukhari recorded that As-Sa'ib bin
"In the lifetime of the Prophet, Abu Bakr and Umar, the Adhan for the Friday prayer was pronounced while the
Imam sat on the pulpit. But during Uthman's later time when the Muslims increased in
number, an additional call was pronounced upon Az-Zawra', meaning the
was called upon the house which was called Az-Zawra'''
Az-Zawra' was the
highest house in Al-Madinah near the Masjid.
Prohibiting buying and
selling after the Call on Friday, and the Exhortation to seek Provisions
and leave off business.
means, hastening to the remembrance of Allah and abandoning business, when
the call to the Friday prayer is made. Therefore, the scholars of Islam
agree, it is prohibited for Muslims to engage in business transactions
after the second Adhan.
you may disperse through
the land, and seek the bounty of Allah,
After Allah forbade Muslims from
working after hearing the Adhan and ordered them to gather for the Friday
prayer, He allowed them to spread throughout the earth and seek bounty
after the prayer is finished.
Ibn Abi Hatim recorded
that when the Friday prayer finished, Irak bin Malik would stand by the
gate of the Masjid and invoke Allah, saying,
"O Allah! I have accepted
and complied with Your Call, performed the prayer You ordered and
dispersed as You ordered me. Therefore, grant me of Your favor and You are
the best of those who grant provisions.''
And when they see some
merchandise or some amusement, they disperse headlong to it, and leave you
meaning, on the
Minbar, delivering the
Several of the
Tabi`in said this, such as Abu Al-Aliyah, Al-Hasan, Zayd bin Aslam and
Qatadah. Muqatil bin Hayyan said that the caravan belonged to Dihyah bin
Khalifah before he became a Muslim, and there were drums accompanying
it. So they rushed to the caravan and left Allah's Messenger standing on
the Minbar. Only a few remained.
According to the authentic Hadith that
Imam Ahmad recorded that Jabir said,
"Once, a caravan arrived at
Al-Madinah while Allah's Messenger was giving a Khutbah. So, the people
left, and only twelve men remained (with
Then Allah sent down this Ayah, وَإِذَا
رَأَوْا تِجَارَةً أَوْ لَهْوًا انفَضُّوا إِلَيْهَا (And when they see some
merchandise or some amusement, they disperse headlong to it),''
The Two Sahihs also
recorded this Hadith.
وَتَرَكُوكَ قَائِمًا (And leave you standing),
proves that the Imam should deliver the speech on Friday while standing.
In his Sahih, Imam Muslim recorded that Jabir bin Samurah said,
Jumu`ah,) the Prophet gave two speeches,
and he used to sit between them. The Prophet would recite the Qur'an and
remind the people (of Allah).''
... قُلْ مَا
عِندَ اللَّهِ ...
Say: "That which Allah
means the reward that is
with Allah in the Hereafter,