They have made their
oaths a screen. Thus they hinder (others) from the path of Allah.
meaning, the hypocrites
shield themselves from Muslims when they falsely and sinfully swear to be
what they are not in reality. Some Muslims were deceived because they did
not know their falsehood, and thus, thought that they were Muslims. Some
Muslims believed what hypocrites say and even imitated them in their
outward behavior. However, inwardly, hypocrites seek the destruction of
Islam and its people, and this is why trusting them might bring great harm
to many people.
That is because they
believed, and then disbelieved; therefore their hearts are sealed, so they
meaning, He has decreed
them to be hypocrites because they reverted from faith to disbelief and
exchanged guidance for misguidance. Therefore, Allah stamped and sealed
their hearts and because of it, they cannot comprehend the guidance, nor
any goodness can reach their hearts. Truly, their hearts neither
understand, nor attain guidance.
And when you look at
them, their bodies please you; and when they speak, you listen to their
meaning, hypocrites have
a graceful outer appearance and are eloquent. When one hears them speak,
he will listen to their eloquent words, even though hypocrites are truly
weak and feeble, full of fear, fright and cowardice.
...كَأَنَّهُمْ خُشُبٌ مُّسَنَّدَةٌ
They are as blocks of wood propped up.
means, they are shapes
that do not have much substance.
يَحْسَبُونَ كُلَّ صَيْحَةٍ عَلَيْهِمْ
They think that every cry
is against them.
means, every time an
incident occurs or something frightening happens, they think that it is
headed their way. This is indicative of their cowardice, just as Allah
said about them,
Being miserly towards you
then when fear comes, you will see them looking to you, their eyes
revolving like (those of) one over whom hovers death; but when the fear
departs, they will smite you with sharp tongues, miserly towards good.
Such have not believed. Therefore Allah makes their deeds fruitless and
that is ever easy for Allah. (33:19)
They say: "If we return to Al-Madinah, indeed the more
honorable will expel therefrom the weaker.''
belongs to Allah, and to His Messenger, and to the believers, but the
hypocrites know not.
In his book,
As-Sirah, Muhammad bin Ishaq said,
"After the battle of
Uhud ended, the
Prophet returned to Al-Madinah. Abdullah bin Ubay bin Salul -- as Ibn
Shihab narrated to me -- would stand up every Friday, without objection
from anyone because he was a chief of his people, when the Prophet would
sit on the Minbar, just before he delivered the
Jumu`ah Khutbah to the
people. Abdullah bin Ubay would say,
`O people! This is the Messenger of
Allah with you. Allah has honored us by sending him and gave you might
through him. Support him, honor him and listen to and obey him.'
then sit down. So after the battle of Uhud, even after he did what he did,
that is, returning to Al-Madinah with a third of the army, he stood up to
say the same words. But the Muslims held on to his clothes and said to
`Sit down, O enemy of Allah! You are not worthy to stand after you
did what you did.'
Abdullah went out of the Masjid crossing people's
lines and saying,
`By Allah, it is as if I said something awful when I
wanted to support him.'
Some men from Al-Ansar met him at the gate of the
Masjid and asked him what happened. He said,
`I just stood up to support
him and some men, his Companions, jumped at me, pulled me back and
admonished me, as if what I said was an awful thing; I merely wanted to
They said to him, `Woe to you! Go back so that Allah's
Messenger asks Allah to forgive you.'
He said, `By Allah, I do not wish
that he ask Allah to forgive me.'''
Qatadah and As-Suddi said, "This Ayah
was revealed about Abdullah bin Ubay.
A young relative of his went to
Allah's Messenger and conveyed to him an awful statement that Abdullah
The Messenger called Abdullah, who swore by Allah that he did not
The Ansar went to that boy and admonished him. However,
Allah sent down what you hear about Abdullah's case and Allah's enemy was
`Go to Allah's Messenger,' but he turned his head away, saying that
he will not do it.''
Muhammad bin Ishaq said that Muhammad bin Yahya bin
Hibban, Abdullah bin Abi Bakr and Asim bin Umar bin Qatadah narrated to
him the story of Bani Al-Mustaliq.
They said that while the Messenger of
Allah was in that area, Jahjah bin Sa`id Al-Ghifari, a hired hand for
Umar, and Sinan bin Wabr fought over the water source.
Sinan called out,
while Al-Jahjah called, "O Muhajirin!''
Zayd bin Arqam and
several Ansar men were sitting with Abdullah bin Ubay bin Salul at that
time. When Abdullah heard what happened, he said,
"They are bothering us
in our land. By Allah, the parable of us and these foolish Quraysh men, is
the parable that goes, `Feed your dog until it becomes strong, and it will
eat you.' By Allah, when we go back to Al-Madinah, the most mighty will
expel the weak from it.''
He then addressed his people who were sitting
with him, saying to them,
"What have you done to yourselves You let them
settle in your land and shared your wealth with them. By Allah, if you
abandon them, they will have to move to another area other than yours.''
Zayd bin Arqam heard these words and conveyed them to Allah's Messenger. Zayd was a young boy then. Umar bin Al-Khattab was with the Messenger and
"O Allah's Messenger!
Order Abbad bin Bishr to cut off his head at his neck.''
What if people started
saying that Muhammad kills his companions, O Umar, No. However, order the
people to start the journey (back to Al-Madinah).
When Abdullah bin Ubay
bin Salul was told that his statement reached Allah's Prophet, he went to
him and denied saying it. He swore by Allah that he did not utter the
statement that Zayd bin Arqam conveyed. Abdullah bin Ubay was a chief of
his people and they said,
"O Allah's Messenger! May
be the young boy merely guessed and did not hear what was said
Messenger started the journey at an unusual hour of the day and was met by Usayd bin Al-Hudayr, who greeted him acknowledging his
Prophethood. Usayd said,
"By Allah! You are about
to begin the journey at an unusual time.''
Did not the statement of
your friend, Ibn Ubay reach you He claimed that when he returns to
Al-Madinah, the mighty one will expel the weak one out of it.
"Indeed, you are the mighty one, O Allah's Messenger, and he is the
"Take it easy with him, O
Allah's Messenger! By Allah, when Allah brought you to us, we were about
to gather the pearls (of a crown) so that we appoint him king over us. He
thinks that you have rid him of his kingship.''
The Messenger of Allah traveled with the people
until the night fell, then the rest of the night until the beginning of
the next day and then set camp with the people. He wanted to busy them
from talking about what had happened. The minute people felt the ground
under their feet, they went to sleep and Surah Al-Munafiqin was revealed.
Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Al-Bayhaqi recorded that Jabir bin Abdullah said,
were in a battle with Allah's Messenger and a man from the Emigrants
kicked an Ansari man. The Ansari man called out,
`O Ansar!' and the
Emigrant called out, `O Emigrants!'
What is this call of Jahiliyyah? Abandon it because it is offensive.
Abdullah bin Ubay heard
that and said,
`Have they (the Emigrants) done so By Allah, if we return
to Al-Madinah, surely, the more honorable will expel therefrom the
The Ansar at that time, were more numerous that the Emigrants
when the Messenger of Allah came to Al-Madinah, but later on the Emigrants
increased in number. When this statement reached the Prophet, Umar got up
`O Allah's Messenger! Let
me chop off the head of this hypocrite!'
Leave him, lest the
people say that Muhammad kills his companions.''
Imam Ahmad, Al-Bukhari
and Muslim collected this Hadith.
Ikrimah and Ibn Zayd and others said
when the Prophet and his Companions went back to Al-Madinah, Abdullah,
the son of Abdullah bin Ubay bin Salul, remained by the gate of
Al-Madinah holding his sword. People passed by him as they returned to
Al-Madinah, and then his father came. Abdullah, son of Abdullah, said to
"Stay where you are,''
and his father asked what the matter
was His son said,
"By Allah! You will enter through here until the
Messenger of Allah allows you to do so, for he is the honorable one and
you are the disgraced.''
When the Messenger of Allah came by, and he used
to be in the last lines, Abdullah bin Ubay complained to him about his
son and his son said,
"By Allah, O Allah's Messenger! He will not enter it
until you say so.''
The Messenger gave his permission to Abdullah bin Ubay and his son said,
"Enter, now that the Messenger of Allah gave you
In his Musnad, Abu Bakr Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr Al-Humaydi
recorded from Abu Harun Al-Madani that
Abdullah, the son of `Abdullah bin Ubay bin Salul, said to his father,
"You will never enter Al-Madinah
unless and until you say, `Allah's Messenger is the honorable one and I am
When the Prophet came, Abdullah, son of Abdullah bin Ubay bin Salul
said to him,
"O Allah's Messenger! I
was told that you have decided to have my father executed. By He Who has
sent you with Truth, I never looked straight to his face out of respect
for him. But if you wish, I will bring you his head, because I would hate
to see the killer of my father.''
And whosoever does that, then they are the
Allah informs them that
those who engage in this life, its delights and attributes and were busied
from the obedience and remembrance of Allah, for which they were created,
will be among the losers. They will lose themselves and their families on
the Day of Resurrection.
Allah encourages the
believers to spend in His cause,