And verily, we thought
that men and Jinn would not utter a lie against Allah.
meaning, `we did not
think that humans and Jinns would join each other in lying about Allah by
attributing a spouse and a son to Him. So when we heard this Qur'an we
believed in it and we knew that they (Jinns and men) had been lying about
Allah in this matter.'
Among the Causes of the Transgression of the Jinns were that Humans sought
Refuge with Them
And verily, there were
men among mankind who took shelter with the males among the Jinn, but they
increased them in Rahaq.
meaning, `we used to think that we had some
virtuous status over mankind because they used to seek refuge with us
whenever they (men) would settle in a valley or any place in the
wilderness, the open country steppes and other places.'
This was the
custom of the Arabs in the pre-Islamic days of ignorance. They used to
seek refuge with the greatest Jinn of a particular place so that no harm
or evil would afflict them. Like one would do if he entered into the land
of his enemies, in the vicinity of a great and powerful man, he would seek
the protection and guardianship of that man.
So when the Jinns saw that
the humans were seeking refuge with them due to their fear of them, they
increased them in Rahaq which means
fear, terror and fright. They did this so that the people would be more
afraid of them and seek refuge with them even more.
As Qatadah said
concerning this Ayah, فَزَادُوهُمْ
رَهَقًا (but they increased them
in Rahaq.) means,
"the Jinns were courageous and increased in insolence
"A man used to set out
with his family (on a journey) until he came to a piece of land where he
would settle. Then he would say,
`I seek refuge with the
master (Jinn) of this valley from the Jinns, or that myself, my wealth, my
child or my animals are harmed in it.'''
"When they sought refuge with them instead of Allah,
the Jinns would overcome them with harm because of that.''
Ibn Abi Hatim recorded
from `Ikrimah that he said,
"The Jinns used to fear
humans just like humans fear them, or even worse. So whenever humans would
come to a valley the Jinns would flee. So the leader of the people would
`We seek refuge with the
leader of the inhabitants of this valley.'
So the Jinns said,
`We see these people
fleeing from us just like we flee from them.'
Thus, the Jinns started
coming near the humans and afflicting them with insanity and madness.''
Jinns stealing Information from the Sky before the the Messenger was sent
and striking Them with flaming Fire after His Coming
Allah informs about the
Jinns when He sent His Messenger Muhammad and revealed the Qur'an to him.
Among the ways He protected it (the Qur'an) was by filling sky with stern
guards guarding it from all of its sides. The devils were then expelled
from the places where they used to sit prior to that. This was so that
they could not steal anything from the Qur'an and tell it to the
soothsayers, thereby causing matters to be confused and mixed up. If this
happened it would not be known who was being truthful. Allah did this out
of His kindness to His creation, His mercy upon His servants and His
protection of His Mighty Book (the Qur'an). This is why the Jinns said,
And we have sought to
reach the heaven; but found it filled with stern guards and flaming fires.
And verily, we used to sit there in stations, to (steal) a hearing, but
any who listens now will find a flaming fire watching him in ambush.
meaning, whoever would
like to steal some information by listening, he will find a flaming fire
waiting in ambush for him. It will not pass him or miss him, but it will
wipe him out and destroy him completely.
This is not so, rather
whenever Allah decrees a matter in the heaven...''
and then he went on to
narrate the rest of the Hadith which we have already mentioned in its
entirety in Surah Saba'.
This is what caused them to seek the reason for
this occurrence. So they set out searching in the east and the west. Then
they found the Messenger of Allah reciting (the Qur'an) while leading his
Companions in prayer. Thus, they knew that this Qur'an was the reason for
the sky being guarded. Therefore, some among them believed in it and the
others became more rebellious in their transgression. A discussion of this
has preceded in a Hadith of Ibn `Abbas concerning Allah's statement in
And (remember) when We
sent towards you (Muhammad) a group of the Jinn (quietly) listening to the
There is no doubt that when so many shooting stars began
appearing in the sky, it horrified humans and Jinns alike. They were very
disturbed and alarmed by it. They thought that it was the destruction of
"The sky was never guarded except if there was a
Prophet in the earth or the religion of Allah was victorious and dominant
in the earth.''
So the devils before the time of Muhammad had taken
sitting stations for themselves in the heaven of this world and they would
listen to the matters that occurred in the heaven. But when Allah sent
Muhammad as a Prophet and Messenger, they were suddenly pelted one night
(with the flaming, shooting stars). So the people of Ta'if were frightened
because of this and they began to say,
`The dwellers of the sky have been
This was because they saw the severe fires in the sky and the
shooting flames. They began freeing their servants and abandoning their
luxuries. So `Abd Yalayl bin `Amr bin `Umayr said to them and he was
referred to for judgement among them
"Woe to you O people of Ta'if! Hold
on to your wealth and look at these guiding stars in the sky. If you see
them remaining in their place, then the dwellers of the sky have not been
destroyed, rather this has happened because of Ibn Abi Kabshah (-- meaning
Muhammad). And if you look and see that you can no longer see these
stars, then verily the dwellers of the sky have been destroyed.''
looked and saw that the stars still remained, and thus, they kept their
wealth. The devils also were frightened during that night. They went to Iblis and informed him of what happened to them. So he (Iblis) said,
"Bring me a handful of dirt from every land so that I may smell it.''
they brought it and he smelled it and said, "It is your friend in
Then he sent a group of seven Jinns to Makkah, and they found
the Prophet of Allah standing in prayer in Al-Masjid Al-Haram while
reciting the Qur'an. They drew near to him eager to hear the Qur'an, until
their chests almost pressed against him. Then they accepted Islam and
Allah revealed their matter to His Messenger .
We have mentioned this
chapter in its entirety in the first section of the Kitab As-Sirah with
lengthy discussion. Allah knows best and unto Him is all praise and
There are among us some
that are righteous, and some the contrary;
meaning, other than that.
... كُنَّا طَرَائِقَ قِدَدًا﴿١١﴾
We are groups having
meaning, on numerous
differing paths and having different thoughts and opinions.
Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and
others have said,كُنَّا طَرَائِقَ قِدَدًا (We are groups having
"This means among us are believers and among us are
Ahmad bin Sulayman An-Najjad reported in his (book of)
Amali that he heard Al-A`mash saying,
"A Jinn came to us, so I said to
him, `What is the most beloved food to your kind'
He replied, `Rice.'
we brought them some rice and I saw the morsels being lifted but I did not
see a hand lifting it. So I asked him, `Do you have these desires
(religious innovations) among your kind as we have among ours'
Then I said, `Who are the
Rafidah among you'
He said, `They are the
worst of us.'''
I presented this chain of narration to our Shaykh,
Al-Hafiz Abi Al-Hajjaj Al-Mizzi and he said its chain is authentic to Al-A`mash.
And we think that we
cannot escape Allah in the earth, nor can we escape Him by flight.
meaning, `we know that
the power of Allah is decisive over us and that we cannot escape Him in
the earth. Even if we try to flee, we know that He has complete control
over us and that none of us can escape Him.'
If they had believed in
Allah, and went on the way, We would surely have bestowed on them water in
abundance. That We might try them thereby.
The commentators have
differed over the explanation of this. There are two views concerning it.
- The First View That if
the deviant ones would stand firmly upon the path of Islam, being just
upon it and remaining upon it,
لَأَسْقَيْنَاهُم مَّاء غَدَقًا (We would surely have
bestowed on them water in abundance).
meaning, a lot. The
intent behind this is to say that they would be given an abundance of
With this, the meaning of
Allah's statement, لِنَفْتِنَهُمْ
فِيهِ (That We might try them
thereby). is that,
`We will test them.'
As Malik reported from Zayd bin
Aslam, he said,
"That We might try them -
means, so that We may test them to see who will remain upon the guidance
from those who will turn back to sin.''
Mentioning Those Who held this View
Al-`Awfi reported similar
to this from Ibn `Abbas, and likewise said Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr,
Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib, `Ata, As-Suddi, Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi,
Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak.
"This Ayah was revealed about the
disbelievers of the Quraysh when they were deprived of rain for seven
- The Second View وَأَلَّوِ
اسْتَقَامُوا عَلَى الطَّرِيقَةِ (If they had believed in
Allah, and went on the way),
meaning, of misguidance.
لَأَسْقَيْنَاهُم مَّاء غَدَقًاWe would surely have
bestowed on them water in abundance.
meaning, `then We would
have increased their sustenance to allow a gradual respite.'
So, when they forgot that
with which they had been reminded, We opened for them the gates of
everything, until in the midst of their enjoyment in that which they were
given, all of a sudden, We took them, and lo! They were plunged into
destruction with deep regrets and sorrows. (6:44)
Allah commands His
servants to single Him out alone for worship and that none should be
supplicated to along with Him, nor should any partners be associated with
Him. As Qatadah said concerning Allah's statement,
And the Masjids are for
Allah, so invoke not anyone along with Allah.
"Whenever the Jews and
Christians used to enter their churches and synagogues, they would
associate partners with Allah. Thus, Allah commanded His Prophet to tell
them that they should single Him out alone for worship.''
recorded from Sa`id bin Jubayr that he said concerning this verse,
"The Jinns said to the
Prophet of Allah, `How can we come to the Masjid while we are distant -
meaning very far away - from you And how can we be present for the prayer
while we are far away from you' So Allah revealed this Ayah."
The Jinns crowding
together to hear the Qur'an. Allah said,
And when the servant of
Allah stood up invoking Him in prayer they just made round him a dense
crowd as if sticking one over the other.
Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn
"When they heard the Prophet reciting the Qur'an they almost
mounted on top of him due to their zeal. When they heard him reciting the
Qur'an they drew very near to him. He was unaware of them until the
messenger (i.e., Jibril) came to him and made
him recite, قُلْ أُوحِيَ
إِلَيَّ أَنَّهُ اسْتَمَعَ نَفَرٌ مِّنَ الْجِنِّ (Say: "It has been
revealed to me that a group of Jinn listened).'' (72:1)
They were listening to
This is one opinion and it has been reported
from Az-Zubayr bin Al-`Awwam.
Ibn Jarir recorded from
Ibn `Abbas that he said,
"The Jinns said to their
لَمَّا قَامَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ
يَدْعُوهُ كَادُوا يَكُونُونَ عَلَيْهِ لِبَدًا (when the servant of
Allah stood up invoking Him in prayer they just made round him a dense
crowd as if sticking one over the other).''
This is the second view and
it has also been reported from Sa`id bin Jubayr.
"When the Messenger of
Allah stood up and said none has the right to be worshipped except Allah,
and he called the people to their Lord, the Arabs almost crowded over him
together (against him).''
Say: "I invoke only my
Lord, and I associate none as partners along with Him.''
meaning, when they harmed
him, opposed him, denied him and stood against him in order to thwart the
truth he came with, and to unite against him, the Messenger said to them إِنَّمَا
أَدْعُو رَبِّي (I invoke only my Lord),
meaning, `I only worship my Lord alone, and He has no partners. I seek His
help and I put my trust in Him.' وَلَا
أُشْرِكُ بِهِ أَحَدًا (and I associate none as
partners along with Him).
Messenger does not have Power to harm or give Guidance
"It is not in my power to
cause you harm, or to bring you to the right path.''
meaning, `say: I am only
a man like you all and I have received revelation. I am only a servant
among the servants of Allah. I have no control over the affairs of your
guidance or your misguidance. Rather all of these things are referred to
Till, when they see that
which they are promised, then they will know who it is that is weaker
concerning helpers and less important concerning numbers.
these idolators from the Jinns and humans see what has been promised to
them on the Day of Judgement. Then on that day, they will know who's
helpers are weaker and fewer in number -- them or the believers who
worship Allah alone.
This means that the idolators have no helper at all
and they are fewer in number than the soldiers of Allah.
Say: "I know not whether
which you are promised is near or whether my Lord will appoint for it a
meaning, a long period of time.
In this noble Ayah is an
evidence that the Hadith that many of the ignorant people often circulate,
which says that the Prophet will not remain under the earth more than one
thousand years (i.e., the Hour will be before that period) is a baseless
lie. We have not seen it in any of the Books (of Hadith).
Messenger of Allah was asked about the time of the Hour and he would not
respond. When Jibril appeared to him in the form of a Bedouin Arab, one of
the questions he asked the Prophet was, "O Muhammad! Tell me about the
Till he knows that they
have conveyed the Messages of their Lord.
"So that the Prophet of Allah
would know that the Messengers had conveyed their Messages from Allah and
that the angels have protected them and defended them.''
This has also
been reported by Sa`id bin Abi `Arubah from Qatadah, and Ibn Jarir
preferred this interpretation.
"Ya`qub recited it
as, (لِيَعْلَمَ in order to be known) this means, so that the people may know that the
Messengers had conveyed the Message.''
It also could carry the meaning
that the pronoun refers to Allah (i.e., So that He (Allah) may know.
opinion has been mentioned by Ibn Al-Jawzi in Zad Al-Masir.
The meaning of this is that He protects His Messengers
through His angels so that they will be able to convey His Messages. He
protects what He reveals to them of revelation so that He will know that
they have indeed conveyed the Messages of their Lord. This is like His