Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn Abbas; "It will
Qatadah said, "Its light will go away.''
Sa`id bin Jubayr said, "Kuwwirat
means it will sink in.''
Abu Salih said, "Kuwwirat means it will be thrown
means to gather one part of something with another part of it (i.e., folding).
From it comes the folding of the turban (Imamah) and the
folding of clothes together.
Thus, the meaning of Allah's statement,
is that part of it will be folded up into another part of it. Then it will be
rolled up and thrown away. When this is done to it, its light will go away.
Al-Bukhari recorded from Abu
Hurayrah that the Prophet said,
And when the pregnant
she-camels (`Ishar) are neglected
Ikrimah and Mujahid said,
are (pregnant she) camels.''
"`Uttilat means abandoned and
Ubayy bin Ka`b and Ad-Dahhak
"Their owners will neglect
Ar-Rabi` bin Khuthaym said,
"They will not be milked or
tied up. Their masters will leave them abandoned.''
"They will be left with no one
to tend to them.''
And the meaning of all of these statements is similar.
What is intended is that the
`Ishar is a type of camel. It is actually the best
type of camel, and particularly the pregnant females of them when they have
reached the tenth month of their pregnancies. One of them is singularly referred
to as `Ushara', and she keeps that name
until she gives birth. So the people will be too busy to tend to her, take care
of her or benefit from her, after she used to be the most important thing to
them. This will be due to what will suddenly overtake them of the great,
terrifying and horrible situation.
This is the matter of the Day
of Judgement, the coming together of its causes, and the occurrence of those
things that will happen before it.
There is not a moving creature
on earth, nor a bird that flies with its two wings, but are communities like
you. We have neglected nothing in the Book, then unto their Lord they shall be
Ibn `Abbas said, "Everything will be gathered,
even the flies.''
This statement was recorded by Ibn Abi Hatim.
Allah also says,
And (so did) the birds assembled. (38:19)
And when the female infant
(Al-Maw'udah) buried alive is questioned: For what sin was she killed?
majority have recited it as Su'ilat (she is questioned), as it is here.
is the female infant that the people of the pre-Islamic time of ignorance would
bury in the dirt due to their hatred of girls.
Therefore, on the Day of Judgement, the female infant will be asked what sin she committed that caused
here to be murdered. This will be a means of frightening her murderer. For
verily, if the one who was wronged is questioned, what does the wrongdoer (the
one who is guilty of the oppression) think then.
Ali bin Abi Talhah reported
that Ibn `Abbas said, وَإِذَا
الْمَوْؤُودَةُ سُئِلَتْAnd when the female infant
(Al-Maw'udah) buried alive
"This means that she will ask.''
made a similar statement when he said,
"She will ask, meaning she will demand
restitution for her blood.''
The same has been reported from As-Suddi and
Hadiths have been reported concerning the Maw'udah. Imam Ahmad recorded from A'ishah, who reported from Judamah bint Wahb,
the sister of Ukkashah, that she said, "I was in the presence of the
Messenger of Allah when he was with some people, and he said,
I was about to prohibit sexual
relations with breast feeding women, but then I saw that the Romans and the
Persians have sexual relations with their women who breast feed their children
and it does not harm the children at all.
Then they asked him about
interruption of sexual intercourse to prevent the male discharge from entering
the womb of the woman, and he said,
That is the minor infanticide
and it is the female infant buried alive (Maw'udah) that will be questioned.''
Muslim, Ibn Majah, Abu Dawud,
At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i, all recorded this Hadith as well.
Atonement for burying Infant Girls Alive
Abdur-Razzaq said that
Isra'il informed them from Simak bin Harb, from An-Nu`man bin Bashir, who
reported from Umar bin Al-Khattab that he said concerning Allah's statement,
الْمَوْؤُودَةُ سُئِلَتْ And when the female infant
buried alive is questioned.
"Qays bin `Asim came to
the Messenger of Allah and said, `O Messenger of Allah! Verily, I buried some
daughters of mine alive in the period of pre-Islamic ignorance.'
The Messenger of Allah said,
أَعْتِقْ عَنْ كُلِّ وَاحِدَةٍ مِنْهُنَّ
Free a slave for each one of
Then Qays said, `O Messenger
of Allah! Verily, I am an owner of camels.'
Ibn Jarir recorded from Khalid
bin Ar`arah that he heard Ali
being asked about the Ayah; فَلَا
الْكُنَّسِ(Nay! I swear by
Al-Khunnas, Al-Jawar Al-Kunnas.) and he said,
"These are the stars that
withdraw (disappear) during the day and sweep across the sky (appear) at
- One of them is that this refers to
its advancing with its darkness.
Mujahid said, "It means its darkening.''
bin Jubayr said, "When it begins.''
Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, "When it covers the
This was also said by `Atiyah Al-`Awfi.
Ali bin Abi Talhah and Al-`Awfi
both reported from Ibn `Abbas:إِذَا عَسْعَسَ
(when it `As`as)
"This means when it goes
Mujahid, Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak, all said the same.
Aslam and his son Abdur-Rahman also made a similar statement, when they said,إِذَا عَسْعَسَ
"This means when it leaves,
and thus it turns away.''
I believe that the intent in
Allah's saying, إِذَا عَسْعَسَ
`As`as) is when it
approaches, even though it is correct to use this word for departing also.
However, approachment is a more suitable usage here.
It is as if Allah is swearing
by the night and its darkness when it approaches, and by the morning and its
light when it shines from the east.
This is as Allah says,
وَالَّيْلِ إِذَا يَغْشَى
وَالنَّهَارِ إِذَا تَجَلَّى
By the night as it envelops.
By the day as it appears in
and He also says,
By the forenoon. By the night
when it darkens. (93:1-2)
Allah also says,
وَجَعَلَ الَّيْلَ سَكَناً
Cleaver of the daybreak. He
has appointed night for resting. (6:96)
And there are other similar Ayat that
Many of the scholars of the fundamentals of language have said
that the word `As`as is used to mean
advancing and retreating, with both meanings sharing the same word. Therefore,
it is correct that the intent could be both of them, and Allah knows best.
has prestige, his word is listened to, and he is obeyed among the most high
gathering (of angels).
Qatadah said, مُّطَـعٍ ثَمَّ (Obeyed there)
"This means in the heavens. He
is not one of the lower ranking (ordinary) angels. Rather he is from the high
ranking, prestigious angels. He is respected and has been chosen for (the
delivery of) this magnificent Message.''
Allah then says,
This is a
description of Jibril as being trustworthy. This is something very great, that
the Almighty Lord has commended His servant and angelic Messenger, Jibril, just
as He has commended His servant and human Messenger, Muhammad by His statement,
meaning, indeed Muhammad saw Jibril, who brought him the Message
from Allah, in the form that Allah created him in (i.e., his true form), and he
had six hundred wings.
in the clear horizon.
This refers to the first sighting which occurred at
(Makkah). This incident is mentioned in Allah's statement,
عَلَّمَهُ شَدِيدُ الْقُوَى
ذُو مِرَّةٍ فَاسْتَوَى
وَهُوَ بِالاٍّفُقِ الاٌّعْلَى
فَكَانَ قَابَ قَوْسَيْنِ
فَأَوْحَى إِلَى عَبْدِهِ مَآ أَوْحَى
He has been taught by one
mighty in power (Jibril).
Dhu Mirrah, then he rose.
While he was in the highest
part of the horizon.
Then he approached and came closer.
And was at a distance
of two bows' length or less.
So (Allah) revealed to His servant what He
The explanation of this and its confirmation has already
preceded, as well as the evidence that proves that it is referring to Jibril. It
seems apparent -- and Allah knows best -- that this Surah
revealed before the Night Journey (Al-Isra'), because nothing has been mentioned
in it except this sighting (of Jibril), and it is the first sighting.
The second sighting has been
mentioned in Allah's statement,
وَلَقَدْ رَءَاهُ نَزْلَةً
عِندَ سِدْرَةِ الْمُنتَهَى
عِندَهَا جَنَّةُ الْمَأْوَى
يَغْشَى السِّدْرَةَ مَا يَغْشَى
And indeed he saw him (Jibril)
at a second descent.
Near Sidrah Al-Muntaha.
Near it is the Paradise of Abode.
When that covered the lote tree which did cover it ! (53:13-16)
And these Ayat
have only been mentioned in Surah An-Najm, which was revealed after
(The Night Journey).
meaning, where has your reason gone, in rejecting this Qur'an, while it is
manifest, clear, and evident that it is the truth from Allah.
This is as Abu
Bakr As-Siddiq said to the delegation of Bani Hanifah when they came to him as
Muslims and he commanded them to recite (something from the Qur'an). So they
recited something to him from the so called Qur'an of Musaylimah the Liar, that
was total gibberish and terribly poor in style.
Thus, Abu Bakr said,
you! Where have your senses gone By Allah, this speech did not come from a
Qatadah said, فَأَيْنَ
تَذْهَبُونَ (Then where are you
going) meaning, from the Book of Allah and His obedience.
And you cannot will unless
(it be) that Allah wills -- the Lord of all that exists.
This means that the
will is not left to you all, so that whoever wishes to be guided, then he is
guided, and whoever wishes to be astray, then he goes astray, rather, all of
this is according to the will of Allah the Exalted, and He is the Lord of all
It is reported from Sulayman bin Musa that when this Ayah was
مِنكُمْ أَن يَسْتَقِيمَ (To whomsoever among you who
wills to walk straight.) Abu Jahl said,
"The matter is up to us. If we
wish, we will stand straight, and we do not wish, we will not stand straight.''
So Allah revealed, وَمَا
تَشَاؤُونَ إِلَّا أَن يَشَاء اللَّهُ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ (And you cannot will unless
(it be) that Allah wills the Lord of
the all that exists.)
This is the end of
the Tafsir of Surah At-Takwir, and all praise and thanks are due to Allah.